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Table 1 Summary of the univariate and bivariate statistics

From: Investigating the relationships between social capital, chronic health conditions and health status among Australian adults: findings from an Australian national cohort survey

Variables Full sample Chronic condition(s) No chronic condition p-value
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Gender     0.004
 Male 7887 (47.4) 2252 (45.7) 5635 (48.1)  
 Female 8750 (52.6) 2675 (54.3) 6075 (51.9)  
Age     < 0.001
 18 to 24 2333 (14.0) 358 (7.3) 1975 (16.9)  
 25 to 44 5907 (35.5) 987 (20.0) 4920 (42.0)  
 45 to 64 5319 (32.0) 1749 (35.5) 3570 (30.5)  
 65 and older 3078 (18.5) 1833 (37.2) 1245 (10.6)  
Country of birth     0.004
 Australia-born 12,919 (77.7) 3756 (76.2) 9163 (78.3)  
 Foreign-born 3713 (22.3) 1170 (23.8) 2543 (21.7)  
Educational level     < 0.001
 Year 11 and below 4187 (25.2) 1938 (39.4) 2249 (19.2)  
 Year 12 and equivalent 2658 (16.0) 593 (12.1) 2065 (17.6)  
 Diploma and certificate 5496 (33.1) 1566(31.8) 3930 (33.6)  
 Bachelor’s and above 4285 (25.8) 822 (16.7) 3463 (29.6)  
Smoking status     < 0.001
 Yes 2706 (18.4) 906 (20.7) 1800 (17.4)  
 No 12,012 (81.6) 3473 (79.3) 8539 (82.6)  
Drinking status     < 0.001
 Yes 12,097 (82.3) 3269 (74.7) 8828 (85.6)  
 No 2594 (17.7) 1108 (25.3) 1486 (14.4)  
Physical activity (per week) < 0.001
 None 1739 (11.8) 990 (22.4) 749 (7.2)  
 1 to 2 times 5926 (40.1) 1894 (38.4) 4232 (40.8)  
 3 to 6 times 5427 (36.7) 1313 (29.8) 4114 (39.7)  
 Everyday 1680 (11.4) 415 (9.4) 1265 (12.2)  
Body mass index (BMI)     < 0.001
 Underweight 308 (2.2) 98 (2.4) 210 (2.1)  
 Normal weight 5396 (38.3) 1210 (29.2) 4186 (42.1)  
 Overweight 4970 (35.3) 1459 (35.2) 3511 (35.3)  
 Obese 3416 (24.2) 1374 (33.2) 2042 (20.5)  
Chronic health condition, impairment and disability N.A. N.A. N.A.
 Sight problem 469 (9.5)    
 Hearing problem 869 (17.6)
 Speech problem 84 (1.7)
 Blackouts, fits or loss of consciousness 149 (3.0)
 Difficulty learning 247 (5.0)
 Limited use of arms/fingers 611 (12.4)
 Difficulty gripping things 559 (11.3)
 Limited use of feet/legs 961 (19.5)
 Nervous or emotional condition 723 (14.7)
 Condition restricting physical activity 1790 (36.3)
 Disfigurement/deformity 102 (2.1)
 Mental illness 400 (8.1)
 Shortness of breath 626 (12.7)
 Chronic or recurring pain 1329 (27.0)
 Head injury or other brain damage 209 (4.2)
 Long-term condition still restrictive after treatment 1403 (28.5)
 Other long-term conditions 2169 (44.0)
Physical health status (PCS) M (SE) 48.24 (12.14) 37.42 (13.59) 52.75 (7.94) < 0.001
Mental health status (MCS) M (SE) 49.49 (12.25) 42.73 (14.14) 52.34 (10.09) < 0.001
Community participation M (SE) 2.32 (0.81) 2.33 (0.84) 2.31 (0.80) 0.371
Perceived community cohesion M (SE) 4.66 (1.06) 4.61 (1.13) 4.68 (1.03) 0.001
Neighbourdhood social climate M (SE) 2.45 (0.69) 2.48 (0.73) 2.44 (0.70) 0.002
  1. Note. M Mean, SE Standard error
  2. Pearson’s Chi-square tests were used for categorical variables, while independent-sample t-tests were used for continuous variables
  3. Significance levels for the bivariate analyses (chronic conditions vs. no chronic condition)