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Table 2 Differences in distorted body image regarding body weight according to characteristics in each gender

From: Distorted body weight perception and its gender differences in middle-aged adults: population based study

 Men (n = 3552)Women (n = 4811)
CharacteristicsClassificationn (weighted %)/ MDistorted (n = 1610) n (weighted %)/M (SD)Non-distorted (n = 1942) n (weighted %)/M (SD)X2/t (sig.)n (weighted %)/MDistorted (n = 1236) n (weighted %)/M (SD)Non-distorted (n = 3575) n (weighted %)/M (SD)X2/t (sig.)
Mean ageyears54.6754.99(5.59)54.40(5.71)−4.67 (<.001)54.5354.97(5.73)54.38(5.59)−3.31 (.001)
Educational level (n = 7909)Middle school and under938(25.9)469(28.5)469(23.8)9.43 (.001)1809(36.7)507(39.9)1302(35.6)6.69 (.004)
High school and over2386(74.1)1024(71.5)1362(76.2)2776(63.3)650(60.1)2126(64.4)
Having spouse (n = 8363)Yes3371(94.6)1529(94.9)1842(94.4)0.37 (.552)4731(98.4)1215(98.3)3516(98.4)0.10 (.670)
No181(5.4)81(5.1)100(5.6)80(1.6)21(1.7)59(1.6)
Having job (n = 7904)Yes2816(85.7)1269(86.5)1547(85.2)1.14 (.245)2702(58.6)694(58.9)2008(58.5)0.06 (.743)
No504(14.3)223(13.5)281(14.8)1882(41.1)462(41.1)1420(41.5)
Type of job (n = 5518)White color990(35.7)419(34.4)571(36.8)1.70 (.114)699(25.7)156(22.8)543(26.7)4.27 (.017)
Blue color1826(64.3)850(65.6)976(63.2)2003(74.3)538(77.2)1465(73.3)
Income quintile (n = 8338)The lowest877(24.8)423(26.2)454(23.6)8.37 (.007)1185(24.1)320(25.9)865(23.4)4.28 (.068)
Low897(25.2)434(26.5)463(24.2)1194(24.5)318(25.0)876(24.3)
Moderate869(24.5)372(23.2)497(25.5)1212(25.6)301(24.2)911(26.0)
High897(25.5)376(24.1)521(26.7)1207(25.8)295(24.8)912(26.2)
Number of family members (n = 8363)1321(8.3)156(8.9)165(7.9)3.56 (.055)409(6.6)102(6.4)307(6.7)0.18 (.845)
2–31991(53.0)928(54.1)1063(52.2)3097(64.0)798(64.4)2299(63.8)
4 over1240(38.6)526(37.0)714(39.9)1305(29.4)336(29.2)969(29.5)
Health security (n = 8316)National regional health insurance1244(35.3)571(35.0)673(35.5)2.65 (.113)1598(33.2)430(34.5)1168(32.8)3.54 (.057)
National workplace health insurance2137(60.6)954(60.3)1183(60.8)3013(63.3)756(62.7)2257(63.5)
Medical aid154(4.1)75(4.7)79(3.7)170(3.5)37(2.8)133(3.8)
CharacteristicsClassificationn (weighted %)/MDistorted (n = 1610) n (weighted %)/M (SD)Non-distorted (n = 1942) n (weighted %)/M (SD)X2/t (sig.)n (weighted %)/MDistorted (n = 1236) n (weighted %)/M (SD)Non-distorted (n = 3575) n (weighted %)/M (SD)X2/t (sig.)
Number of chronic diseases. 0.480.39(0.63)0.55(0.73)11.11 (<.001)0.490.45(0.66)0.49(0.71)2.36 (.021)
Regular health screening (n = 7922)Yes2477(73.6)1089(72.5)1388(74.5)1.66 (.137)3497(75.0)896(76.3)2601(74.5)1.47 (.130)
No853(26.4)408(27.5)445(25.5)1095(25.0)262(23.7)833(25.5)
Regular cancer screening (n = 7920)Yes2175(63.3)955(62.6)1220(63.9)0.55 (.374)3455(74.1)886(75.9)2569(73.5)2.53 (.036)
No1155(36.7)541(37.4)614(36.1)1137(25.9)272(24.1)865(26.5)
Perceived health status (n = 7949)Good1056(32.3)508(35.8)548(29.5)14.82 (<.001)1092(23.6)266(23.0)826(23.9)0.32 (.531)
Bad or not bad2284(67.7)991(64.2)1293(705)3517(76.4)898(77.0)2619(76.1)
Daily activity limitation (n = 7927)Yes261(7.4)117(7.2)144(7.6)0.16 (.608)380(8.0)95(7.2)285(8.3)1.56 (.090)
No3072(92.6)1381(92.8)1691(92.4)4214(92.0)1064(92.8)3150(91.7)
BMI, kg/m2 (n = 8363)Less than 18.562(1.5)5(0.1)57(2.6)64.25 (<.001)101(2.2)8(0.8)93(2.6)101.02 (<.001)
18.5–22.9997(28.8)520(32.5)477(25.8)1922(41.1)628(52.8)1294(37.1)
More than 23.02493(69.7)1085(67.4)1408(71.6)2788(56.7)600(46.3)2188(60.3)
Body weight perception (n = 8363)Underweight633(17.3)576(35.6)57(2.6)2340.15 (<.001)475(9.7)382(30.5)93(2.6)893.84 (<.001)
Normal1486(42.2)1009(62.8)477(25.8)1874(39.2)580(45.2)1294(37.1)
Overweight1433(40.5)25(1.7)1408(71.6)2462(51.1)274(24.3)2188(60.3)
Change in body weight (n = 8359)No change2601(72.8)1223(75.4)1378(70.7)34.44 (<.001)3046(62.7)865(68.4)2181(60.7)73.21 (<.001)
Weight loss491(14.3)238(15.3)253(13.5)507(10.4)167(13.5)340(9.4)
Weight gain459(12.9)148(9.3)311(15.8)1255(26.9)202(18.1)1053(29.8)
Weight control effort (n = 8361)Yes2242(63.2)911(57.6)1331(67.7)38.53 (<.001)3539(74.5)876(72.7)2663(75.1)2.59 (.074)
No1310(36.8)699(42.4)611(32.3)1270(25.5)358(27.3)912(24.9)
Menopause (n = 4811)Yes    3241(63.9)839(64.6)2402(63.7)0.31 (.587)
No   1570(36.1)397(35.4)1173(36.3)
CharacteristicsClassificationn (weighted %)Distorted (n = 1610) n (weighted %)Non-distorted (n = 1942) n (weighted %)X2/t (sig.)n (weighted %)Distorted (n = 1236) n (weighted %)Non-distorted (n = 3575) n (weighted %)X2/t (sig.)
Drinking (n = 8362)Yes3395(95.8)1531(65.4)1864(96.0)0.92 (.268)4053(84.9)1026(83.9)3027(85.2)1.28 (.151)
No157(4.2)79(4.6)78(4.0)757(15.1)209(16.1)548(14.8)
Heavy drinker (n = 6103)Yes1831(62.5)787(59.4)1044(65.0)9.73 (<.001)501(16.9)135(18.9)366(16.2)2.84 (.067)
No1141(37.5)566(40.6)575(35.0)2630(83.1)637(81.1)1993(83.8)
Smoking (n = 8356)Yes2969(83.5)1332(82.6)1637(84.3)1.83 (.108)391(8.7)102(8.7)289(8.7)0.01 (.983)
No581(16.5)276(17.4)305(15.7)4415(91.3)1131(91.3)3284(91.3)
Regular walking (n = 5334)Yes970(43.3)440(64.1)530(41.1)5.77 (.003)1544(51.9)374(50.6)1170(52.3)0.63 (.320)
No1326(56.7)590(53.9)736(58.9)1494(48.1)388(49.4)1106(47.7)
Energy Consumption (n = 7248)Insufficient1484(50.3)667(50.2)817(50.3)0.01 (.918)2713(62.9)705(64.0)2008(62.6)0.73 (.251)
Excessive1438(49.7)659(49.8)779(49.7)1613(37.1)402(36.0)1211(37.4)
Stress (n = 8353)Feeling a lot844(24.3)368(23.7)476(24.7)0.43 (.405)1205(25.7)329(27.8)876(25.0)3.74 (.031)
A little feeling2706(75.7)1240(76.3)1466(75.3)3598(74.3)902(72.2)2696(75.0)
Depressive symptoms (n = 4387)Yes190(9.9)91(11.0)99(9.0)1.99 (.088)364(14.7)109(18.9)255(13.4)10.66 (<.001)
No1712(90.1)782(89.0)930(91.0)2121(85.3)507(81.1)1614(86.6)
Suicidal ideation (n = 4388)Yes83(4.3)34(3.9)49(4.6)0.53 (.304)149(6.3)49(8.9)100(5.5)8.77 (.002)
No1820(95.7)839(96.1)981(95.4)2336(93.7)567(91.1)1769(94.5)
  1. BMI body mass index