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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariable analysis of double and triple burden of malnutrition among mother-child pairs and its associated factors (n = 2261)

From: Prevalence and factors associated with double and triple burden of malnutrition among mothers and children in Nepal: evidence from 2016 Nepal demographic and health survey

Maternal factorsDBMTBM
COR(95% CI)AOR(95% CI)bCOR(95% CI)AOR(95% CI)c
Age group
 15–241111
 25–341.61 (0.87–2.98)1.59 (0.83–3.03)1.64 (0.88–3.08)1.96 (1.04–3.71)*
> 352.59 (1.13–5.94)**3.08 (1.20–7.86)**3.11 (1.34–7.22)**3.41 (1.26–9.17)**
Age at 1st birth
< 19 years0.13 (0.03–0.45)** 0.16 (0.04–0.62)**0.34 (0.66–1.83)
 20–29 years0.12 (0.03–0.44)** 0.16 (0.03–0.64)**0.18 (0.03–1.06)
 Above 30 years1 11
Province
 Province 10.89 (0.40–2.00)1.20 (0.50–2.85)0.89 (0.38–2.03)1.08 (0.47–2.49)
 Province 20.08 (0.02–0.29)***0.13 (0.03–0.47)***0.10 (0.03–0.33)***0.11 (0.03–0.41)***
 Province 31111
 Province 40.73 (0.31–1.71)0.97 (0.36–2.61)0.71 (0.29–1.70)0.85 (0.31–2.32)
 Province 50.51 (0.21–1.22)0.65 (0.25–1.72)0.57 (0.23–1.38)0.65 (0.27–1.59)
 Province 60.24 (0.07–.75)*0.47 (0.14–1.58)0.28 (0.09–0.87)*0.50 (0.15–1.67)
 Province 70.13 (0.04–0.41)***0.24 (0.07–0.86)*0.14 (0.04–0.45)***0.23 (0.06–0.82)*
Education
 No education1111
 Primary1.14 (0.55–2.34)1.04 (0.49–2.22)1.09 (0.53–2.27)1.06 (0.46–2.41)
 Secondary2.43 (1.24–4.76)*2.05 (1.03–4.07)*2.09 (1.05–4.16)*2.05 (1.00–4.18)*
 higher1.83 (0.81–4.10)1.04 (0.43–2.49)1.57 (0.67–3.71)1.43 (0.53–3.84)
Occupation
 Agriculture1111
 No job1.42 (0.75–2.68)1.19 (0.58–2.42)1.33 (0.70–2.52)1.10 (0.53–2.26)
 Services2.82 (1.37–5.81)*1.34 (0.63–2.86)2.60 (1.26–5.36)*1.33 (0.59–2.96)
Wealth status
 Poor1111
 Middle1.15 (0.48–2.75)1.42 (0.54–3.71)0.98 (0.38–2.49)1.61 (0.58–4.40)
 Rich2.89 (1.50–5.54)***2.46 (1.17–5.15)**2.61 (1.36–5.02)***2.66 (1.28–5.54)***
Height
 Normal height1111
 Short stature3.19 (1.59–6.39)***4.18 (2.04–8.52)***4.38 (2.17–8.86)***5.01 (2.45–10.24)***
Delivery by CS 
 No111
 Yes2.39 (1.18–4.84)*1.44 (0.68–3.04)1.95 (0.90–4.25)
Father’s occupation 
 Agriculture1 1
 No job0.98 (0.41–2.32) 1.01 (0.40–2.52)
 Services1.24 (0.53–2.87) 1.27 (0.52–3.07)
Father’s education 
 No education1 1
 Primary1.81 (0.58–5.75) 1.84 (0.54–6.17)
 Secondary1.49 (0.54–4.10) 1.36 (0.46–4.00)
 higher1.64 (0.56–4.80) 1.51 (0.48–4.71)
Child factors
Child’s age
< 12 months1111
 13–23 months1.63 (0.80–3.30)0.85 (0.33–2.20)2.13 (0.99–4.57)1.24 (0.47–3.34)
 24–35 months2.15 (1.04–4.46)*1.06 (0.39–2.86)2.85 (1.33–6.11)*1.60 (0.56–4.57)
 36–47 months2.19 (1.01–4.73)*1.18 (0.43–3.24)2.75 (1.21–6.24)*1.71 (0.58–5.02)
 48–59 months1.76 (0.79–3.89)0.77 (0.26–2.26)2.27 (0.98–5.28)1.17 (0.36–3.75)
Child’s sex 
 Male1 1
 Female0.84 (0.53–1.33) 0.78 (0.49–1.26)
Vitamin A
 Yes1111
 No0.45 (0.22–0.92)*0.70 (0.29–1.69)0.40 (0.19–0.86)*0.85 (0.34–2.14)
Deworming
 Yes1111
 No0.54 (0.31–0.91)*0.71 (0.32–1.56)0.49 (0.28–0.86)*0.79 (0.35–1.74)
Currently breastfeeding
 Yes1111
 No1.97 (1.10–3.51)*1.34 (0.64–2.79)1.93 (1.07–3.47)*1.24 (0.59–2.60)
Birth weight
 Average111 
 Large1.93 (1.13–3.29)*1.57 (0.85–2.92)1.61 (0.90–2.87)
 Small1.43 (0.78–2.60)1.46 (0.77–2.75)1.53 (0.84–2.81)
  1. DBM Double burden of malnutrition (Overweight/obese mother and undernourished child at the same household)
  2. TBM Triple burden of malnutrition (Overweight/obese mother and undernourished and anemic child at the same household)
  3. 1: reference category
  4. COR Crude odds ratio, AOR Adjusted odds ratio
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.02, ***P < 0.001
  6. b This model was adjusted for mother’s age groups, province, education, occupation, wealth status, mother’s height, delivery by CS, child’s age, vitamin A intake in the last 6 months, deworming, currently breast feeding, and birth weight
  7. c This model was adjusted for mother’s age groups, mother’s age at 1st birth, province, education, occupation, wealth status, mother’s height, child’s age, vitamin A intake in the last 6 months, deworming, and currently breast feeding