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Table 2 The anthropometric outcomes of children aged 6–35 months with various parental migration statuses

From: The association between parental migration and early childhood nutrition of left-behind children in rural China

 

Outcomes [mean (SD)/ n/N (%)] a

Adjusted differences [aMD (95%CI) / aOR (95%CI)] b

NLBC

FLBC

PLBC

Total

FLBC vs. NLBC

PLBC vs. NLBC

PLBC vs. FLBC

2013

 Length/height-for-age z-score

-0.89 (1.45)

−0.57 (1.33)

−1.07 (1.25) §

− 0.80 (1.40)

0.13 (0.01, 0.26)

0.08 (− 0.13, 0.28)

− 0.02 (− 0.23, 0.19)

  Stunting (<− 2 z-scores)

234/1231 (19.0%)

92/781 (11.8%)

42/226 (18.6%) §

368/2238 (16.4%)

0.73 (0.56, 0.96)

0.79 (0.53, 1.19)

1.08 (0.70, 1.68)

 Weight-for-age z-score

−0.46 (1.34)

−0.19 (1.24)

− 0.77 (1.29) ‡§

−0.40 (1.31)

0.11 (− 0.01, 0.22)

0.07 (− 0.12, 0.25)

−0.02 (− 0.22, 0.18)

  Underweight (<− 2 z-scores)

114/1245 (9.2%)

52/797 (6.5%)

28/232 (12.1%) §

194/2274 (8.5%)

0.77 (0.54, 1.09)

1.14 (0.69, 1.87)

1.49 (0.86, 2.55)

 Weight-for-length/height z-score

0.10 (1.13)

0.19 (1.18)

−0.24 (1.15) ‡§

0.09 (1.16)

0.02 (−0.08, 0.12)

0.04 (−0.13, 0.21)

0.03 (− 0.15, 0.20)

  Wasting (<−2 z-scores)

40/1222 (3.3%)

26/791 (3.3%)

12/229 (5.2%)

78/2242 (3.5%)

1.02 (0.61, 1.71)

1.23 (0.59, 2.56)

1.20 (0.55, 2.62)

2016

 Length/height-for-age z-score

−0.71 (1.22)

− 0.61 (1.12)

− 0.83 (1.27) §

−0.69 (1.20)

0.01 (− 0.09, 0.12)

0.06 (− 0.08, 0.20)

0.05 (− 0.09, 0.19)

  Stunting (<−2 z-scores)

144/1078 (13.4%)

69/773 (8.9%)

51/332 (15.4%) §

264/2183 (12.1%)

0.73 (0.53, 1.01)

0.99 (0.68, 1.43)

1.35 (0.89, 2.04)

 Weight-for-age z-score

−0.31 (1.05)

− 0.19 (1.02)

− 0.32 (1.00) §

−0.27 (1.03)

0.02 (− 0.07, 0.11)

0.09 (− 0.03, 0.21)

0.07 (− 0.06, 0.19)

  Underweight (<−2 z-scores)

47/1086 (4.3%)

31/783 (4.0%)

10/335 (3.0%)

88/2204 (4.0%)

1.03 (0.63, 1.67)

0.52 (0.25, 1.08)

0.51 (0.24, 1.09)

 Weight-for-length/height z-score

0.10 (0.96)

0.18 (1.03)

0.15 (0.88)

0.14 (0.97)

0.02 (−0.07, 0.11)

0.09 (−0.03, 0.21)

0.08 (− 0.05, 0.20)

  Wasting (<−2 z-scores)

17/1073 (1.6%)

14/770 (1.8%)

2/328 (0.6%)

33/2171 (1.5%)

1.28 (0.61, 2.65)

0.38 (0.09, 1.73)

0.30 (0.07, 1.38)

  1. NLBC non-left-behind children, FLBC left-behind children with migrant fathers, PLBC left-behind children with both migrant parents, aMD adjusted mean difference, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. aThe number of children with available outcomes was indicated with N after slash
  3. baMDs and aORs were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of children (resident county, child gender, age, preterm and ethnicity) in 2013, and additional two intervention variables (the frequency of consumption of Yingyangbao supplements and the frequency of received nutritional consultations) in 2016
  4. FLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; PLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; § PLBC vs. FLBC p < 0.05