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Table 4 Behaviour change techniques and example strategies for removing barriers to engaging in specific arts activities amongst individuals with depression

From: Barriers and enablers to engagement in participatory arts activities amongst individuals with depression and anxiety: quantitative analyses using a behaviour change framework

COM-B componentExample of relevant barriers to engagement in arts activitiesIntervention typeaBehaviour Change TechniquesbExample strategy to encourage engagement in arts activities
Psychological CapabilityKnowing less about different types of activities available, feeling less mentally capable to engage, and being less confident in making plans for when and how to engageEducation
Enablement
Instruction on how to perform the behaviour
Action planning
Graded tasks
Educational resources (i.e. leaflet, websites, helplines) outlining the range of activities available in the local area and their dates and times.
An action planning template/tool to prompt individuals to formulate a plan for which activities they will attend, where, when, on which days, how often.
Encouragement to individuals to start small- formulating a plan to engage in one or two activities at a low frequency, and gradually increase number of activities/ frequency as appropriate
Physical CapabilityFeeling less skilled in specific arts activities, having physical limitations affecting participation, or having less energy or strengthTrainingInstruction on how to perform behaviour
Demonstration of the behaviour AND/OR Behavioural practice rehearsal
Feedback on behaviour
Educational resources (i.e. leaflet, websites, helplines) outlining the range of activities available in the local area and their dates and times.
Taster sessions, or drop-in training sessions, for different activities, in which individuals can receive instructions and tuition on the ‘basics’ or a specific skill they are struggling with, watch demonstrations of it being performed
Practice engaging in activities under supervision (e.g. in a class) with opportunity for feedback and correction as needed
Social OpportunityNot knowing people who engage in arts activities, feeling unsupported by friends or family, or feeling participation is not socially acceptableModelling
Persuasion
Enablement
Credible Source
Demonstration of the behaviour
Information about others’ approval
Social practical support
Campaigns or resources (leaflets, websites), or social media, featuring testimonials of people with depression and anxiety modelling engagement in arts activities and advocating benefits associated with this AND/OR healthcare professionals endorsing it AND/OR testimonial from friends and families also endorsing the benefits of a loved one engaging in arts activities.
Taster sessions, or drop-in training sessions, for different activities, in which individuals can receive instructions and tuition on the ‘basics’ or a specific skill they are struggling with, watch demonstrations of it being performed
Opportunities for performances or showcase events for friends and family to see the product of the activities and give direct feedback
Tips or direct help from individuals to seek social support from others (i.e. peers, friends and family members) to engage in artistic activities. This could be identifying joint activities they can do with others, providing reminders, verbal encouragement, support getting to/from activities if needed.
Physical OpportunityNot having sufficient time to engage, resources to engage, or easily accessible activitiesIncentivesMaterial incentive
Practical incentive AND/OR enablement
Provision of free activities, vouchers or financial discounts for participating in artistic activities
Direct referral or recommendation to attend a specific activity from a health or social care professional, with follow up on attendance and experience in the activity
Automatic MotivationNot having a habit of engaging, not enjoying engaging, and not feeling a benefit from engagingPersuasion
Education
Self-monitoring
Information about consequences (health, social, environmental)
Credible source
Provision of opportunity for individuals to reflect on their experience after engaging in an artistic activity e.g. providing a diary or rating scale asking individuals to state something they enjoyed from engaging in the activity.
Educational materials and resources outlining the different types of benefits of engaging in creative activities, and the evidence base for these e.g. research evidence and/or testimonials from credible/relatable individuals.
Campaigns or resources (leaflets, websites), or social media, featuring testimonials of people with depression and anxiety modelling engagement in arts activities and advocating benefits associated with this AND/OR healthcare professionals endorsing it AND/OR testimonial from friends and families also endorsing the benefits of a loved one engaging in arts activities.
Reflective MotivationNot believing there are personal benefits from engaging, not having a goal to achieve, and not feeling artistic or imaginative as a personPersuasion
Modelling
Self-monitoring
Identity associated with behaviour change
Goal setting
Credible source
Demonstration
Encouragement for individuals to track changes in their health and wellbeing over a period of engagement e.g. through diaries, rating scales before and after engagement
Encouragement for individuals to track changes in their identity, e.g. through keeping a diary, reflecting on and affirming/verbalising positive changes relating to being creative and artistic.
Setting of goals to achieve e.g. performances or exhibitions to take part in, work to produce or skills to learn
Campaigns or resources (leaflets, websites), or social media, featuring testimonials of people who may not identify as especially ‘artistic’ advocating benefits associated with engagement
Taster sessions, or drop-in training sessions, for different activities, to normalise the creativity or artistic credentials needed to engage
  1. aIntervention type labels from the Behaviour Change Wheel (Michie et al. 2011); bBehaviour Change Technique (BCT) labels from BCT Taxonomy v1 (Michie et al. 2013)
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