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Table 1 Participant Demographics and Survey Responses (N = 646)a

From: Social networks and obesity among Somali immigrants and refugees

MeasurementFemale (N = 278)Male (N = 364)Total (N = 646)
Age, mean (SD), y39.4 (16.2)36.0 (17.0)37.5 (16.7)
Formal schooling completed, No. (%)
 ≤ 8 grades124 (45)41 (11)165 (26)
 Some high school23 (8)41 (11)64 (10)
 High school or general equivalency diploma60 (22)134 (37)194 (30)
 Some college or technical school49 (18)98 (27)147 (23)
 College or advanced degree19 (7)49 (13)68 (11)
Annual family income, $, No. (%)
 0–9999130 (47)130 (36)260 (41)
 10,000-19,99949 (18)53 (15)102 (16)
 20,000-29,00053 (19)61 (17)114 (18)
 30,000-49,99931 (11)80 (22)111 (18)
 ≥ 50,00012 (4)34 (9)46 (7)
Health insurance in past 12 mo, No. (%)
 Yes263 (95)313 (86)576 (90)
 No13 (5)50 (14)63 (10)
Country of birth, No. (%)
 United States14 (5)31 (9)45 (7)
 Other255 (595)319 (91)574 (93)
English language proficiency, No. (%)
 Not at all34 (13)22 (6)56 (9)
 Not very well94 (35)59 (16)153 (24)
 Well72 (26)121 (34)193 (31)
 Very well72 (26)158 (44)230 (36)
Body mass index, mean (SD)28.1 (6.1)25.1 (4.7)26.4 (5.5)
 Normal weight (BMI 18.5 < 25), No. (%)97 (35)211 (59)308 (49)
 Overweight (BMI 25 < 30), No. (%)86 (31)97 (27)183 (29)
 Obese, No. (%)92 (33)52 (14)144 (23)
Dietary behaviors
 Do you drink regular soda? No. (%)
  No134 (49)106 (29)240 (38)
  Sometimes108 (39)174 (48)282 (44)
  Often23 (8)53 (15)76 (12)
  Every day11 (4)29 (8)40 (6)
 Do you drink fruit drinks, punch, or sports drinks? No. (%)
  No122 (44)67 (19)189 (30)
  Sometimes79 (29)146 (41)225 (35)
  Often63 (23)101 (28)164 (26)
  Every day13 (5)46 (13)59 (9)
 No. of servings of vegetables daily, mean (SD)2.2 (1.3)2.2 (2.1)2.2 (1.7)
 No. of servings of fruit daily, mean (SD)2.3 (1.3)2.2 (2.0)2.2 (1.8)
Physical activity,b No. (%)
 Low71 (26)48 (14)119 (19)
 Moderate109 (40)104 (29)213 (34)
 High94 (34)202 (57)296 (47)
Self-efficacy for healthy diet, mean (SD)c4.2 (0.9)3.9 (1.0)4.0 (0.99)
Self-efficacy for physical activity, mean (SD)c4.1 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)4.1 (0.97)
Social support for healthy diet, mean (SD)d3.7 (0.9)3.2 (0.9)3.4 (0.9)
Social cohesion, mean (SD)e5.9 (0.8)5.9 (1.1)5.9 (1.0)
Social norms for obesogenic behaviors, mean (SD)d2.0 (1.0)2.4 (1.1)2.2 (1.1)
Social norms for weight loss, mean (SD)d2.2 (0.8)2.1 (0.9)2.2 (0.8)
How likely are you to try to lose weight in the next 3 months? No. (%)
 Very unlikely or unlikely5 (3)14 (9)19 (4)
 Neither likely nor unlikely24 (13)33 (20)57 (17)
 Very likely or likely149 (84)116 (71)265 (78)
  1. aTotals vary because of missing data and combined categories. Gender was missing for 4 participants
  2. bInternational Physical Activity Questionnaire [34]
  3. cReported from a 10-point scale, with 1 being the lowest response option and 10 the highest
  4. dReported from a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 being the lowest response option and 5 the highest
  5. eReported from a 7-point Likert scale, with 1 being the lowest response option and 7 the highest
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