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Table 2 Unadjusted mean round trip travel times (in minutes) by rural-urban category and individual, provider, and clinical characteristic

From: Rural-urban differences in the association between individual, facility, and clinical characteristics and travel time for cancer treatment

 All (n = 197,498)Metro (n = 175,184)Rural RUCC 4–6 (n = 19,346)P value (metro vs. rural RUCC 4–6)Rural RUCC 7–9 (n = 2968)P value (metro vs. rural RUCC7–9)P value (rural RUCC 4–6 vs. rural RUCC 7–9)
Overall48.141.595.6< 0.001128.9< 0.001< 0.001
Ages < 4056.448.7117.6< 0.001150.7< 0.0010.001
Ages 40–6452.645.4107.5< 0.001150.9< 0.001< 0.001
Ages 65+44.338.186.5< 0.001114.4< 0.001< 0.001
Male51.844.799.3< 0.001139.0< 0.001< 0.001
Female44.538.491.6< 0.001117.6< 0.001< 0.001
White51.144.095.8< 0.001129.0< 0.001< 0.001
Non-white24.423.681.2< 0.00187.1< 0.0010.683
Race missing48.644.9107.5< 0.001188.4< 0.0010.001
Non-Hispanic48.341.496.6< 0.001127.9< 0.001< 0.001
Hispanic28.827.089.2< 0.001140.0< 0.0010.034
Hispanic missing49.346.376.4< 0.001176.5< 0.001< 0.001
Private insurance52.946.2108.3< 0.001151.9< 0.001< 0.001
Uninsured43.936.891.9< 0.001128.9< 0.0010.017
Medicaid43.134.9104.3< 0.001148.7< 0.001< 0.001
Medicare45.839.288.2< 0.001114.4< 0.001< 0.001
Dual-eligible39.430.681.2< 0.001103.6< 0.0010.001
Other insurance46.941.692.4< 0.001162.0< 0.001< 0.001
Travel time to nearest facility (minutes)
 25th percentile29.725.572.5< 0.001119.6< 0.001< 0.001
 75th percentile78.767.6111.6< 0.001139.9< 0.001< 0.001
Chronological facility number
 25th percentile47.641.194.4 127.2  
 75th percentile48.141.595.6 128.9  
US News hospital score
 25th percentile41.338.651.5< 0.00163.7< 0.001< 0.001
 75th percentile69.057.8189.9< 0.001296.7< 0.001< 0.001
US News hospital score missing41.338.651.5 63.7  
Volume of cases 2010–2014 at facility attended (in 100’s)   < 0.001 < 0.001< 0.001
 25th percentile37.234.346.5< 0.00160.8< 0.001< 0.001
 75th percentile68.757.6143.6< 0.001198.0< 0.001< 0.001
Other digestive53.645.7113.5< 0.001166.0< 0.001< 0.001
Lung/bronchus41.935.390.0< 0.001132.5< 0.001< 0.001
Colorectal38.933.475.6< 0.00192.6< 0.001< 0.001
Prostate58.151.4101.3< 0.001153.0< 0.001< 0.001
Female breast38.934.774.1< 0.00187.4< 0.001< 0.001
Cervical/uterine54.544.9135.7< 0.001171.7< 0.0010.143
Oral/pharyngeal59.251.8110.1< 0.001148.1< 0.001< 0.001
Ovarian58.649.1128.9< 0.001180.2< 0.0010.001
Thyroid57.748.7122.8< 0.001180.3< 0.001< 0.001
Melanoma57.751.2107.3< 0.00191.1< 0.0010.008
Other urological50.141.9102.7< 0.001152.2< 0.001< 0.001
Local50.343.995.9< 0.001127.1< 0.001< 0.001
Regional48.741.5101.3< 0.001143.1< 0.001< 0.001
Distant43.236.393.0< 0.001131.1< 0.001< 0.001
Unknown stage36.733.657.4< 0.00157.8< 0.0010.951
Non-mutually exclusive treatment categories
 Chemotherapy46.440.196.9< 0.001121.1< 0.001< 0.001
 Radiation therapy47.642.290.2< 0.001119.6< 0.001< 0.001
 Surgery49.742.799.7< 0.001132.6< 0.001< 0.001
 Immunotherapy45.640.995.1< 0.00193.9< 0.0010.898
 Hormone therapy48.542.595.4< 0.001115.9< 0.001< 0.001