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Table 2 Unadjusted mean round trip travel times (in minutes) by rural-urban category and individual, provider, and clinical characteristic

From: Rural-urban differences in the association between individual, facility, and clinical characteristics and travel time for cancer treatment

  All (n = 197,498) Metro (n = 175,184) Rural RUCC 4–6 (n = 19,346) P value (metro vs. rural RUCC 4–6) Rural RUCC 7–9 (n = 2968) P value (metro vs. rural RUCC7–9) P value (rural RUCC 4–6 vs. rural RUCC 7–9)
Overall 48.1 41.5 95.6 < 0.001 128.9 < 0.001 < 0.001
Ages < 40 56.4 48.7 117.6 < 0.001 150.7 < 0.001 0.001
Ages 40–64 52.6 45.4 107.5 < 0.001 150.9 < 0.001 < 0.001
Ages 65+ 44.3 38.1 86.5 < 0.001 114.4 < 0.001 < 0.001
Male 51.8 44.7 99.3 < 0.001 139.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Female 44.5 38.4 91.6 < 0.001 117.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
White 51.1 44.0 95.8 < 0.001 129.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Non-white 24.4 23.6 81.2 < 0.001 87.1 < 0.001 0.683
Race missing 48.6 44.9 107.5 < 0.001 188.4 < 0.001 0.001
Non-Hispanic 48.3 41.4 96.6 < 0.001 127.9 < 0.001 < 0.001
Hispanic 28.8 27.0 89.2 < 0.001 140.0 < 0.001 0.034
Hispanic missing 49.3 46.3 76.4 < 0.001 176.5 < 0.001 < 0.001
Private insurance 52.9 46.2 108.3 < 0.001 151.9 < 0.001 < 0.001
Uninsured 43.9 36.8 91.9 < 0.001 128.9 < 0.001 0.017
Medicaid 43.1 34.9 104.3 < 0.001 148.7 < 0.001 < 0.001
Medicare 45.8 39.2 88.2 < 0.001 114.4 < 0.001 < 0.001
Dual-eligible 39.4 30.6 81.2 < 0.001 103.6 < 0.001 0.001
Other insurance 46.9 41.6 92.4 < 0.001 162.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Travel time to nearest facility (minutes)
 25th percentile 29.7 25.5 72.5 < 0.001 119.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
 75th percentile 78.7 67.6 111.6 < 0.001 139.9 < 0.001 < 0.001
Chronological facility number
 25th percentile 47.6 41.1 94.4   127.2   
 75th percentile 48.1 41.5 95.6   128.9   
US News hospital score
 25th percentile 41.3 38.6 51.5 < 0.001 63.7 < 0.001 < 0.001
 75th percentile 69.0 57.8 189.9 < 0.001 296.7 < 0.001 < 0.001
US News hospital score missing 41.3 38.6 51.5   63.7   
Volume of cases 2010–2014 at facility attended (in 100’s)     < 0.001   < 0.001 < 0.001
 25th percentile 37.2 34.3 46.5 < 0.001 60.8 < 0.001 < 0.001
 75th percentile 68.7 57.6 143.6 < 0.001 198.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Other digestive 53.6 45.7 113.5 < 0.001 166.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Lung/bronchus 41.9 35.3 90.0 < 0.001 132.5 < 0.001 < 0.001
Colorectal 38.9 33.4 75.6 < 0.001 92.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
Prostate 58.1 51.4 101.3 < 0.001 153.0 < 0.001 < 0.001
Female breast 38.9 34.7 74.1 < 0.001 87.4 < 0.001 < 0.001
Cervical/uterine 54.5 44.9 135.7 < 0.001 171.7 < 0.001 0.143
Oral/pharyngeal 59.2 51.8 110.1 < 0.001 148.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
Ovarian 58.6 49.1 128.9 < 0.001 180.2 < 0.001 0.001
Thyroid 57.7 48.7 122.8 < 0.001 180.3 < 0.001 < 0.001
Melanoma 57.7 51.2 107.3 < 0.001 91.1 < 0.001 0.008
Other urological 50.1 41.9 102.7 < 0.001 152.2 < 0.001 < 0.001
Local 50.3 43.9 95.9 < 0.001 127.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
Regional 48.7 41.5 101.3 < 0.001 143.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
Distant 43.2 36.3 93.0 < 0.001 131.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
Unknown stage 36.7 33.6 57.4 < 0.001 57.8 < 0.001 0.951
Non-mutually exclusive treatment categories
 Chemotherapy 46.4 40.1 96.9 < 0.001 121.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Radiation therapy 47.6 42.2 90.2 < 0.001 119.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Surgery 49.7 42.7 99.7 < 0.001 132.6 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Immunotherapy 45.6 40.9 95.1 < 0.001 93.9 < 0.001 0.898
 Hormone therapy 48.5 42.5 95.4 < 0.001 115.9 < 0.001 < 0.001