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Table 4 Multivariate models of the spirometry parameters (% of predicted) and the risk for disability pension. Hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) are calculated using Cox regression. The total number of study subjects is 3386 and the number of the participants in each quartile is 846 or 847. Each quartile’s range of the spirometry parameter is in paracenteses

From: Does lung function predict the risk of disability pension? An 11-year register-based follow-up study

Lung volymes % of predicted (range)Model 1*
Age** and gender
HR (95% CI)
Model 2*
Education and BMI
HR (95% CI)
Model 3*
Co-morbidities 1 and 2 or more
HR (95% CI)
Model 4*
All mentioned
HR (95% CI)
Model 5*
All aforementioned, smoking and cotinine
HR (95% CI)
FEV1/FVC
 highest quartile (104.23–123.24)refrefrefrefref
 3rd quartile (100.15–104.22)1.07 (0.79–1.45)1.04 (0.76–1.40)1.01 (0.74–1.37)1.03 (0.76–1.40)1.00 (0.74–1.36)
 2nd quartile (95.76–100.14)1.18 (0.87–1.60)1.14 (0.84–1.53)1.08 (0.80–1.45)1.20 (0.89–1.62)1.17 (0.86–1.58)
 lowest quartile (53.42–95.75)1.42 (1.06–1.90)1.41 (1.06–1.89)1.27 (0.96–1.70)1.44 (1.07–1.93)1.35 (1.00–1.83)
FEV1
 highest quartile (109.41–151.59)refrefrefrefref
 3rd quartile (101.56–109.40)1.29 (0.94–1.78)1.15 (0.84–1.58)1.27 (0.92–1.74)1.31 (0.95–1.80)1.31 (0.95–1.81)
 2nd quartile (93.22–101.55)1.26 (0.92–1.75)1.10 (0.79–1.51)1.18 (0.86–1.63)1.24 (0.90–1.71)1.21 (0.87–1.68)
 lowest quartile (40.16–93.21)1.92 (1.43–2.57)1.63 (1.21–2.19)1.85 (1.38–2.47)1.73 (1.28–2.32)1.66 (1.23–2.24)
FVC
 highest quartile (108.89–141.78)refrefrefrefref
 3rd quartile (101.26–108.88)1.18 (0.86–1.63)1.09 (0.79–1.50)1.21 (0.88–1.67)1.18 (0.86–1.63)1.19 (0.86–1.64)
 2nd quartile (93.43–101.25)1.37 (1.00–1.87)1.22 (0.89–1.67)1.29 (0.95–1.77)1.30 (0.95–1.78)1.33 (0.97–1.82)
 lowest quartile (45.51–93.42)1.66 (1.23–2.23)1.48 (1.10–2.00)1.78 (1.33–2.39)1.50 (1.11–2.03)1.49 (1.10–2.01)
  1. * = adjusted for, ** = a continuous variable. FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC forced ventilation capacity, BMI body mass index
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