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Table 2 Social cognitive theory constructs embedded in the interventions

From: A behavioural change intervention study for the prevention of childhood obesity in South Africa: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Use of Social Cognitive Theory grounded in the interventions
SCT constructsCognitive componentBehaviour componentEnvironment component
Knowledge of health benefits and risks [22, 31, 32]Assess the health promotion status in the iLembe district schools and identify the extent to which health promotion has been utilized in the schools (regarding diet and physical activity) by interviewing principals and conducting an interview with principals at baseline.
Nutrition education based on current knowledge- questionnaires that identifies health benefits and risks will be conducted at baseline and post-intervention to assess if there is a significant change in knowledge based on the interventions.
Healthy eating activities; physical activities
Food evaluation: classroom lessons will be designed to assist learners on the risks associated with unhealthy eating, sedentary behaviours, and encourage the learners to bring healthy snacks to school. As the children and adolescents may receive either breakfast or lunch from the school feeding scheme, they can evaluate their meals accordingly.
Food policy to be reviewed or implemented; less energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened drinks to be sold in school tuck shops and by vendors.
Perceived self-efficacy [22, 33]Promote positive body image through classroom lessons, hand puppets; children can become empowered to make correct decisions regarding their health. Through having the knowledge of healthy eating options, unhealthy foods and health risks, as well as sedentary behaviour linked to health conditions, children become more aware of choice and the intention to making correct choices and changing behaviours/attitudes that benefit them e.g. less intake of sweetened juices, energy-dense snacks when given the optionsFind differences between foods that are nutrient dense and foods that are low in nutrients and energy- dense- use colouring in competitions to colour in healthy options, role-play of good and bad eating and lifestyle habits, sporting activities that include netball and soccer tournaments and prize-giving.Interactive homework to work with parents, Barriers to change questionnaire
Outcome expectations [22, 33]Classroom lessons that focus on fruit and vegetable intake, the Food Pyramid, and how to achieve a balance through healthy eating & physical activityTaste-testing activities, preparing simple fruit and vegetable snacks, aerobics activities, Self-evaluation of current fruit and vegetable intakeMotivational group discussions will also be conducted with both learners and educators
Educators serve as school champions and role models
Observing parents cooking at home.
Use local media to create health awareness regarding healthy eating and activities
Perceived facilitators [22, 34]Nutrition education based on current knowledge and experiences, discuss ways to achieve balance through healthy eating & physical activityProvide opportunities for learners to choose healthier food and snack alternatives (taste-testing)Exposing learners to healthier foods, participation in learning activities with peer groups, parents and learners to create after school supper menus modified to be lower in fat & higher in fruits and vegetables, choosing water or juice offered instead of cool drink, taking into consideration the costs.
Work with vendors to identify unhealthy foods and drinks and replace them with fruits, healthy snacks, encourage learners to drink more clean water