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Table 2 Research questions and the samples and variables analysed

From: Socioeconomic patterning of vaping by smoking status among UK adults and youth

 RQ1: Is vaping associated with SEP among youth and does this vary by smoking status?RQ2: Is vaping associated with SEP among adults and does this vary by smoking status?RQ3: Are socioeconomic inequalities in ex-smoking smaller for ever-smoking adults who vape than those who do not?
SampleYouth aged 10–15Adults aged 16+Adults aged 16+
ExposureSEPSEPSEP
OutcomeVaping (overall and by smoking status)Vaping (overall and by smoking status)Ex-Smoking (among ever-smokers who do and do not vape)
Primary ConfoundersCountry
Ethnicity
Family Structure
Interview Date
Gender
Age
Country
Ethnicity
Lives with Spouse/Partner
Children in Household
Interview Date
Gender
Age
Country
Ethnicity
Lives with Spouse/Partner
Children in Household
Interview Date
Intermediate ConfoundersGendera
Agea
Parental Smoking
Parental Vaping
Current smoker at 1, 2 & 5 years previousCurrent smoker at 1, 2 & 5 years previous
  1. aThese variables were probably not caused by SEP as indicated in Fig. 1, but for youth these are also unlikely to be common causes of SEP and vaping, so were included here, rather than as primary confounders