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Table 3 Smoking, alcohol use, physical activity level, and the quality of life of hardcore smokers among current male smokers aged 55–74 years old with histories of more than 30 pack-years of smoking

From: Burden of male hardcore smokers and its characteristics among those eligible for lung cancer screening

VariableAll (N = 4,763,098)Hardcore smoker (N = 1,576,339)Non-hardcore smoker (N = 3,186,759)P-value
Smoking history
 Age at smoking initiation
  mean ± SD, years20.14 ± 0.1519.91 ± 0.2920.26 ± 0.180.3181
  age < 16448,900 (9.42)96,125 (12.44)252,775 (7.93)0.1983
  16–201,558,601 (32.72)473,733 (30.05)1,084,869 (34.04)
  20–262,354,200 (49.43)793,997 (50.37)1,560,203 (48.96)
  ≥ 26401,396 (8.43)112,484 (7.14)288,912 (9.07)
 Total amount of smoking (mean ± SD, PYs)45.94 ± 0.5948.71 ± 1.0644.57 ± 0.650.0008
 Second-hand smoke at workplace2,215,002 (59.65)783,208 (62.85)1,431,794 (58.03)0.2882
 Second-hand smoke at home534,864 (60.82)205,697 (57.65)329,167 (62.99)0.5190
 Education on smoking cessation295,023 (6.19)31,159 (1.98)263,864 (8.28)0.0012
 Alcohol use0.0250
  Never drinker603,562 (13.38)207,816 (13.94)395,745 (13.10)
  0–1 time per week1,402,721 (31.09)383,625 (25.73)1,019,097 (33.74)
  2–3 times per week1,154,395 (25.58)337,568 (22.64)816,827 (27.04)
  ≥ 4 times per week1,351,464 (29.95)562,243 (37.70)789,221 (26.13)
Physical activity (days per week)
 Intense physical activity   <0.0001
  None3,455,345 (72.62)1,196,667 (76.15)2,258,677 (70.88) 
  1 day or more1,302,777 (27.38)374,696 (23.85)928,081 (29.12) 
 Moderate physical activity   0.0922
  None3,207,816 (67.46)1,124,207 (71.54)2,083,608 (65.44) 
  1 day or more1,547,407 (32.54)447,156 (28.46)1,100,251 (34.56) 
 Walking   0.4154
  None982,587 (20.63)354,400 (22.48)628,187 (19.71) 
  1 day or more3,780,510 (79.37)1,221,939 (77.52)2,558,571 (80.29) 
 Muscle strengthening exercises   0.0062
  None3,576,412 (75.13)1,288,433 (81.74)2,287,979 (71.86) 
  1 day or more1,183,787 (24.87)287,906 (18.26)895,881 (28.14) 
EQ-5D
 Mobility   0.1598
  No problem3,593,648 (75.67)1,142,042 (72.58)2,451,606 (77.20) 
  Problem1,155,661 (24.33)431,468 (27.42)724,193 (22.80) 
 Self-care   0.7847
  No problem4,394,378 (92.52)1,462,178 (92.92)2,932,200 (92.33) 
  Problem354,932 (7.47)111,332 (7.08)243,600 (7.67) 
 Usual activities   0.1462
  No problem4,074,653 (85.79)1,309,170 (83.20)2,765,483 (87.08) 
  Problem674,656 (14.21)264,340 (16.80)410,316 (12.92) 
 Pain/discomfort   0.7049
  No problem3,526,198 (74.25)1,153,523 (73.31)2,372,675 (74.71) 
  Problem1,223,111 (25.75)419,987 (26.69)803,125 (25.29) 
 Anxiety/depression   0.4414
  No problem4,093,048 (86.18)1,332,971 (84.71)276,007 (86.91) 
  Problem656,262 (13.82)240,539 (15.29)415,723 (13.09) 
Stress recognition   0.0494
  Hardly or a little1,047,737 (22.00)303,937 (19.28)743,800 (23.34) 
  Sufficiently2,563,226 (53.81)802,693 (50.92)1,760,533 (55.25) 
  Extremely1,152,135 (24.19)469,710 (29.80)682,425 (21.41) 
  1. Data are presented as either means ± SD or as numbers and percentages, as appropriate. SD standard deviation; PY Pack-year; EQ-5D EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire
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