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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics overall and by arm in San Jose, California (n = 207)*

From: Comparing enhanced versus standard Diabetes Prevention Program among indigenous adults in an urban setting: a randomized controlled trial

 TotalEnhanced interventionStandard intervention
n = 207n = 105n = 102
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, years, mean ± SD52.0 ± 13.352.1 ± 13.851.9 ± 12.8
 Female78.7%79.0%78.4%
 Indigenous Person (IP)a97.1%98.1%96.1%
Race
 IP US, Canada45.4%49.5%41.2%
 IP Mexica, Central America, South
America
30.0%28.6%31.4%
 IP Mixed Ancestry24.6%21.9%27.4%
Ethnicity
 Hispanic53.6%54.3%52.9%
 Non-Hispanic46.4%45.7%47.1%
Income, n = 205 (103, 102)
  < $20,00037.5%35.9%39.2%
 $20,000 - $50,00035.7%38.9%32.3%
 $50,000+26.8%25.3%28.5%
Education
  < High school graduate (0–11 years)13.5%16.2%10.8%
 High school graduate (12 years)20.8%19.0%22.5%
 Some college (1–3 years)44.0%44.8%43.1%
 College graduate (4 or more years)12.6%11.4%13.7%
 Graduate degree9.2%8.6%9.8%
Behavioral characteristics
 Healthy Food Score tertiles
  9–2135.8%34.3%37.3%
  22–2643.5%44.8%42.2%
  27–3220.8%20.9%20.6%
Unhealthy Food Score tertiles
 14–3133.3%36.2%30.4%
 32–3937.7%40.9%34.3%
 39–5829.0%22.9%35.3%
Physical Activity, n = 194 (98, 96)
  < 500 MET-Minutes/Week52.1%54.1%50.0%
 500–1000 MET-Minutes/Week20.0%19.4%20.8%
  > 1000 MET-Minutes/Week27.8%26.5%29.2%
Hazardous drinking - AUDIT-C13.5%12.4%14.7%
PROMIS sleep disturbance T score, mean ± SD, n = 203 (103, 100)52.9 ± 9.453.1 ± 8.652.7 ± 10.1
PROMIS sleep-related impairment T score, mean ± SD, n = 192 (98, 94)46.7 ± 7.947.0 ± 8.146.3 ± 7.7
Clinical characteristics
 BMI (men), kg/m2, mean ± SD37.5 ± 6.639.5 ± 7.835.5 ± 4.7
 BMI (women), kg/m2, mean ± SD37.2 ± 637.2 ± 6.237.1 ± 5.8
 Weight (men), lb., mean ± SD248.8 ± 59262.9 ± 67.1234.6 ± 47.1
 Weight (women), lb., mean ± SD204 ± 35.3206.6 ± 37.9201.2 ± 32.3
 Waist circumference (men), in, mean ± SD47.8 ± 6.549.1 ± 7.346.5 ± 5.5
 Waist circumference (women), in, mean ± SD, n = 160 (82, 78)46.2 ± 5.445.9 ± 5.646.5 ± 5.1
 SBP, mm Hg, mean ± SD123.6 ± 17.1123.4 ± 17.2123.8 ± 17.1
 DBP, mm Hg, mean ± SD77.9 ± 11.978.5 ± 11.977.3 ± 11.9
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL, mean ± SD100.7 ± 10.7101.2 ± 10.9100.1 ± 10.5
 HDL, mg/dL, mean ± SD49.9 ± 14.749.7 ± 1550.1 ± 14.5
 LDL, mg/dL, mean ± SD101.5 ± 29.1103.5 ± 3199.5 ± 27
 Triglycerides, mg/dL, mean ± SD142.2 ± 82.1134.8 ± 69.4149.7 ± 93.1
Psychosocial characteristics
 Depression –CES-D, mean ± SD14 ± 1113.1 ± 9.814.9 ± 12.1
 Depressed (CES-D ≥ 16)34.3%31.4%37.3%
 PTSD - PCL-C, mean ± SD, n = 198 (102, 96)30.1 ± 12.429.5 ± 11.730.7 ± 13
Food Security
 Very Low Security16.4%17.1%15.7%
 Low Security25.1%21.9%28.4%
 High Security58.5%61.0%55.9%
Empowerment
 Emotional empowerment46.4 ± 9.146.3 ± 8.746.5 ± 9.6
  Inner peace27.2 ± 5.427.2 ± 5.127.1 ± 5.8
  Self-capacity11.6 ± 2.711.5 ± 2.711.7 ± 2.6
 Scenarios60.1 ± 1359.8 ± 13.160.4 ± 12.9
  Healing35.9 ± 7.635.9 ± 7.535.8 ± 7.7
  Connection24.2 ± 6.423.9 ± 6.624.6 ± 6.1
  1. Abbreviations: CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; DBP diastolic blood pressure; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PTSD – PCL-C posttraumatic stress disorder Checklist – Civilian Version; SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. * n = 207 unless otherwise specified as n = # of total (# of enhanced intervention, # of standard intervention)
  3. aAlthough the eligibility criteria specified self-identification of having indigenous ancestry, a small number of participants who reported having indigenous ancestry preferred to self-identify as a different race
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