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Table 3 QoL influencing factors among older adults according to country

From: Gender differences in quality of life among community-dwelling older adults in low- and middle-income countries: results from the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

 ChinaIndiaRussiaSouth AfricaGhana
β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)
Age group (Ref: 50–59)
 60–690.83 (0.22)−0.36 (0.28)1.21 (0.43)1.58 (0.38)−0.24 (0.39)
 70–792.25 (0.27)−0.54 (0.37)2.41 (0.51)2.62 (0.48)−0.42 (0.46)
 80 and above4.05 (0.45)−0.27 (0.62)4.93 (0.77)3.92 (0.71)−1.33 (0.63)*
Female−0.42 (0.19)*0.73 (0.29)*−0.30 (0.37)0.71 (0.37)−0.14 (0.40)
Education (Ref: Less than primary)
 Primary only0.14 (0.25)−0.70 (0.38)1.16 (1.15)− 0.72 (0.43)− 0.04 (0.53)
 Secondary only−0.16 (0.27)−0.71 (0.46)1.86 (1.07)0.88 (0.54)1.22 (0.82)
 High school only−0.10 (0.32)0.06 (0.51)1.58 (1.05)1.01 (0.80)−0.71 (0.48)
 College and above0.69 (0.47)1.15 (0.65)1.79 (1.11)1.62 (0.92)0.14 (0.90)
Health insurance0.29 (0.29)−1.20 (0.59)*1.92 (2.60)0.51 (0.44)1.29 (0.33)
Income4.98 (0.25)4.26 (0.35)3.78 (0.50)5.66 (0.47)6.12 (0.47)
Living environment0.96 (0.15)0.58 (0.14)1.03 (0.38)1.29 (0.22)−0.44 (0.23)
Cognitive function0.63 (0.11)0.93 (0.21)0.92 (0.21)1.09 (0.19)1.26 (0.22)
Physical function−0.40 (0.01)−0.31 (0.01)− 0.37 (0.02)−0.31 (0.01)− 0.36 (0.01)
Arthritis−2.78 (0.22)−2.31 (0.33)−2.98 (0.37)−1.60 (0.40)−1.05 (0.46)*
Hypertension0.37 (0.18)*0.13 (0.26)−1.55 (0.34)0.47 (0.36)−0.19 (0.31)
Diabetes−3.24 (0.37)−1.58 (0.48)−2.01 (0.59)−1.67 (0.55)− 1.73 (0.80)*
Married1.61 (0.30)0.63 (0.31)*1.69 (0.47)1.05 (0.38)0.50 (0.40)
Family support0.31 (0.21)0.02 (0.27)−0.71 (0.42)1.27 (0.49)−0.08 (0.34)
Community support−2.32 (0.67)−1.04 (0.44)*2.93 (1.08)3.26 (1.30)*−0.12 (0.87)
Social cohesion index0.28 (0.03)0.31 (0.03)0.38 (0.04)0.05 (0.03)0.20 (0.02)†
Living arrangements1.65 (0.35)−1.59 (0.96)1.67 (0.52)0.95 (0.52)1.96 (0.54)†
  1. Note. * < 0.05;  < 0.01