Skip to main content

Table 1 Prevalence of mental distressa and median HSCL-10 score by socio-demographic and selected health-related factors among men and women 18–49-year-old citizens of Yangon Region, Myanmar

From: The prevalence of mental distress and the association with education: a cross-sectional study of 18-49-year-old citizens of Yangon Region, Myanmar

 Men (N = 1200)Women (N = 1191)
NPrevalence
n (%)
p-valueMedian (IQR)NPrevalence
n (%)
p-valueMedian (IQR)
Age group  0.004*   0.06 
 18–29 years44638 (9.5) 1.1 (0.5)45385 (17.5) 1.3 (0.7)
 30–39 years40962 (16.8) 1.2 (0.7)39593 (22.4) 1.4 (0.7)
 40–49 years34570 (20.9) 1.4 (0.8)34393 (25.4) 1.5 (0.8)
Residence  0.21   0.04* 
Rural62791 (17.3) 1.2 (0.6)621119 (17.2) 1.3 (0.7)
 Urban57379 (12.9) 1.2 (0.7)570152 (26.1) 1.4 (0.9)
Marital status  0.009*   0.09 
 Single32628 (9.8) 1.1 (0.5)24955 (23.6) 1.3 (0.6)
 Married854136 (16.6) 1.3 (0.7)873191 (19.4) 1.4 (0.8)
 Separate/ divorced/widow206 (28.1) 1.4 (0.9)6925 (35.7) 1.7 (0.7)
Years of schoolingb  0.03*   0.002* 
  >  11 years20023 (9.8) 1.1 (0.5)18131 (14.0) 1.2 (0.6)
 6–11 years60275 (13.7) 1.2 (0.6)527101 (17.7) 1.3 (0.7)
  ≤5 years39872 (19.0) 1.4 (0.8)483139 (27.9) 1.5 (0.8)
Occupationc  0.29   0.43 
 Dependent/ students/ housewife563 (8.7) 1.2 (0.5)553131 (22.3) 1.4 (0.8)
 Unskilled worker59795 (17.2) 1.3 (0.7)15942 (26.0) 1.5 (0.7)
 Government/non-government staff18223 (14.8) 1.1 (0.5)10924 (18.9) 1.3 (0.7)
 Small own business36549 (11.9) 1.2 (0.5)37074 (18.3) 1.3 (0.7)
Income level (USD)d  0.001**   0.32 
  > 3.118616 (7.6) 1.1 (0.3)28651 (17.3) 1.3 (0.6)
 1.9–3.0926029 (9.1) 1.2 (0.6)31872 (21.2) 1.3 (0.8)
  < 1.9752125 (19.3) 1.3 (0.8)584148 (23.3) 1.4 (0.7)
Number of children  0.001**   0.001** 
 No child16219 (11.2) 1.1 (0.4)11217 (10.4) 1.3 (0.7)
 1–4 children50166 (13.3) 1.2 (0.7)552102 (15.3) 1.3 (0.7)
  > 5 children21157 (29.8) 1.6 (0.8)27897 (34.5) 1.6 (0.7)
Migration  0.03*   0.04* 
 No1071148 (14.0) 1.2 (0.7)1038225 (20.2) 1.4 (0.8)
 Yes12922 (21.2) 1.4 (0.7)15346 (27.9) 1.5 (0.8)
Family member  0.001**   0.01* 
  < 468275 (11.2) 1.1 (0.5)699138 (17.5) 1.3 (0.7)
  > 451895 (20.1) 1.3 (0.8)492133 (26.8) 1.4 (0.8)
Household Debt  0.008*   0.001** 
 No51758 (11.2) 1.1 (0.5)47675 (14.8) 1.2 (0.6)
 Yes679111 (17.9) 1.3 (0.7)713196 (25.9) 1.5 (0.8)
General Health Status  0.004*   0.001** 
 Good86898 (12.5) 1.1 (0.5)627108 (16.5) 1.2 (0.6)
  Poor33272 (20.7) 1.4 (0.7)564163 (26.6) 1.5 (0.7)
Impairmente  0.007*   0.04* 
 No69778 (11.6) 1.1 (0.5)51089 (17.6) 1.2 (0.6)
 Yes50392 (19.4) 1.4 (0.7)681182 (24.0) 1.5 (0.7)
Musculoskeletal disorder  0.001**   0.001** 
 no pain site34921 (5.8) 1.1 (0.4)12718 (10.4) 1 (0.3)
 1–2 pain sites56480 (13.6) 1.2 (0.7)610111 (17.3) 1.3 (0.7)
 3–5 pain sites28769 (27.2) 1.5 (0.8)454142 (29.6) 1.5 (0.7)
Work loss day due to pain  0.13   0.02* 
 No9611 (11.2) 1.1 (0.4)606 (9.7) 1.1 (0.3)
 Yes755138 (18.9) 1.3 (0.8)1004247 (23.4) 1.4 (0.7)
Experienced traumatic event  0.05*   0.001** 
 No859108 (13.1) 1.2 (0.6)970200 (19.1) 1.3 (0.7)
 Yes34162 (18.9) 1.3 (0.8)22171 (30.5) 1.5 (0.8)
Domestic violence  0.002*   0.001** 
 No62471 (11.4) 1.1 (0.4)51371 (14.3) 1.2 (0.6)
 Yes57699 (18.4) 1.4 (0.7)678200 (26.6) 1.5 (0.8)
  1. aMental distress: > 1.85 HSCL score
  2. bYears at school: < 5 years (primary education); 6–11 years (secondary education: middle and high schools); > 11 years (tertiary education: university)
  3. cOccupation: Dependent (students, housewives and unable to work); Unskilled workers (odds job); Government and
  4. nongovernment staff (getting monthly salary)
  5. dExchange rate: US$1 = 1363 Myanmar Kyats as of 4 November 2018
  6. eImpairment of mobility/hearing/vision/washing/concentration. A positive answer in any of these symptoms is noted as ‘Yes’
  7. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001
\