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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies

From: Men’s perspectives on HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

Author & yearCountryStudy aimSampleNumber of participantsAge groupResearch Method
Burke et al., 2017UgandaTo examine values and preferences related to HIVST among community members and health care providers in both mainland and high-risk fishing populations, including with sex workers and fishermen, in Rakai District, UgandaMales & femalesInterviews:
11 – females
10 – males
12 healthcare providersFGDs: 30 – males
25 - females
Not specifiedQualitative (interviews & focus group discussions)
Chipungu et al., 2017ZambiaTo examine the intention to link to care amongst potential HIVST users and the suitability of three linkage to care strategies in Lusaka Province, ZambiaMales & femalesQuantitative: 1617 (60% females, 40% males) Qualitative: 64 participants16–49 yearsMixed methods: Quantitative (cross sectional survey) & qualitative (focus group discussions)
Choko et al., 2011MalawiTo investigate the potential of supervised oral HIV self-testing in Blantyre, Malawi.Males & femalesQuantitative:
147 – females
136 – males
Qualitative: 72 participants (6 groups of 12 participants each)
Median age = 27 yearsMixed methods: Quantitative (cross-sectional) & qualitative (interviews)
Choko et al., 2017MalawiTo describe the views of pregnant women and their male partners on HIV self-test kits that are woman-delivered, alone or with an additional intervention.Males & females31- females
31 – males
Median age for men: 28.5 years; women: 23.5 yearsQualitative (focus group discussions & in-depth interviews)
Conserve et al., 2018TanzaniaTo investigate the reasons and strategies men used to encourage their peers to test for HIV and the outcomes in order to inform the development of a social network-based HIVST intervention for men called STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion)Males23Mean age: 27.3 yearsQualitative (interviews)
Conserve et al., 2018TanzaniaTo assess men’s attitudes and personal agency towards HIV self-testing (HIVST) and confirmatory HIV testing in order to inform the development of the Tanzania STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project, a peer-based HIV self-testing intervention for young men in TanzaniaMales23Mean age: 27.3 yearsQualitative (interviews)
Harichund et al., 2018South AfricaTo assess whether men or women in KwaZulu-Natal displayed a higher acceptance of HIVST and also explored factors that influenced and motivated their acceptability.Males & females12 -males;
28 -females
men: 19–37 years; women: 18–37 yearsQualitative (in-depth interviews, Focus group discussions)
Indravudh et al., 2017Malawi & ZimbabweTo identify young people’s preferences for HIV self-testing (HIVST) delivery, determines the relative strength of preferences and explores underlying behaviours and perceptions to inform youth-friendly services in southern AfricaMales & females68 - females
54 – males
8-female interviews (60 FGDs participants)
7 – male interviews (47 FGDs participants)
16–25 yearsMixed methods: Qualitative (interviews & focus group discussions); & experiments
Jennings et al., 2017TanzaniaTo assess perceived costs saved and costs incurred from use of HIVST kits in infrequently- or never-tested Tanzanian men.Males2315 years & olderQualitative (interviews)
Kelvin et al., 2016South AfricaTo document opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testingMales & females10 - females
10 - males
18 years & olderQualitative (interviews)
Knight et al., 2017South AfricaTo assess the perceived usability and acceptability of HIVST among lay users using several self-test prototypes.Males & females27 - females;
23 – males
18 years & older(Qualitative (interviews)
Makusha et al., 2015South AfricaTo explore: interest in HIV self-testing; potential distribution channels for HIV self-tests to target groups; perception of requirements for diagnostic technologies that would be most amenable to HIV self-testing and opinions on barriers and opportunities for HIV-linkage to care after receiving positive test resultsMales & females2: Government Officials; 4: NGOs; 2: Donors; 3 Academic Researchers; 1 Int. stakeholder18 years & olderQualitative (in-depth interviews)
Martinez Perez et al., 2016South AfricaTo examine the feasibility and acceptability of unsupervised oral self-testing for home use in an informal settlement of South Africa.Males11 - females;
9 - males
18 years & olderQualitative (couple interviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions)
Matovu et al., 2018UgandaTo explore HIVST perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda.Males17 - females;
15 - males
18 years & olderQualitative (in-depth interviews)
Ngure et al., 2017KenyaTo address key questions on feasibility, acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among HIV-uninfected persons initiating PrEPMales10 - females;
20 - males
27–38 yearsQualitative (in-depth interviews; focus group discussion) & qualitative
Ritchwood et al., 2019South AfricaTo elucidate concerns and issues regarding HIVST rollout among South African youthMales & femalesPhase 1 (FGDs):
16 females;
19 males,
Phase 2a (Observations):
10 females;
10 males
Phase 2b (Observations):
20 females;
20 males
18–24 yearsMixed methods: Qualitative (focus group discussions) & observations