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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies

From: Men’s perspectives on HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

Author & year Country Study aim Sample Number of participants Age group Research Method
Burke et al., 2017 Uganda To examine values and preferences related to HIVST among community members and health care providers in both mainland and high-risk fishing populations, including with sex workers and fishermen, in Rakai District, Uganda Males & females Interviews:
11 – females
10 – males
12 healthcare providersFGDs: 30 – males
25 - females
Not specified Qualitative (interviews & focus group discussions)
Chipungu et al., 2017 Zambia To examine the intention to link to care amongst potential HIVST users and the suitability of three linkage to care strategies in Lusaka Province, Zambia Males & females Quantitative: 1617 (60% females, 40% males) Qualitative: 64 participants 16–49 years Mixed methods: Quantitative (cross sectional survey) & qualitative (focus group discussions)
Choko et al., 2011 Malawi To investigate the potential of supervised oral HIV self-testing in Blantyre, Malawi. Males & females Quantitative:
147 – females
136 – males
Qualitative: 72 participants (6 groups of 12 participants each)
Median age = 27 years Mixed methods: Quantitative (cross-sectional) & qualitative (interviews)
Choko et al., 2017 Malawi To describe the views of pregnant women and their male partners on HIV self-test kits that are woman-delivered, alone or with an additional intervention. Males & females 31- females
31 – males
Median age for men: 28.5 years; women: 23.5 years Qualitative (focus group discussions & in-depth interviews)
Conserve et al., 2018 Tanzania To investigate the reasons and strategies men used to encourage their peers to test for HIV and the outcomes in order to inform the development of a social network-based HIVST intervention for men called STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Males 23 Mean age: 27.3 years Qualitative (interviews)
Conserve et al., 2018 Tanzania To assess men’s attitudes and personal agency towards HIV self-testing (HIVST) and confirmatory HIV testing in order to inform the development of the Tanzania STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project, a peer-based HIV self-testing intervention for young men in Tanzania Males 23 Mean age: 27.3 years Qualitative (interviews)
Harichund et al., 2018 South Africa To assess whether men or women in KwaZulu-Natal displayed a higher acceptance of HIVST and also explored factors that influenced and motivated their acceptability. Males & females 12 -males;
28 -females
men: 19–37 years; women: 18–37 years Qualitative (in-depth interviews, Focus group discussions)
Indravudh et al., 2017 Malawi & Zimbabwe To identify young people’s preferences for HIV self-testing (HIVST) delivery, determines the relative strength of preferences and explores underlying behaviours and perceptions to inform youth-friendly services in southern Africa Males & females 68 - females
54 – males
Qualitative:
8-female interviews (60 FGDs participants)
7 – male interviews (47 FGDs participants)
16–25 years Mixed methods: Qualitative (interviews & focus group discussions); & experiments
Jennings et al., 2017 Tanzania To assess perceived costs saved and costs incurred from use of HIVST kits in infrequently- or never-tested Tanzanian men. Males 23 15 years & older Qualitative (interviews)
Kelvin et al., 2016 South Africa To document opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testing Males & females 10 - females
10 - males
18 years & older Qualitative (interviews)
Knight et al., 2017 South Africa To assess the perceived usability and acceptability of HIVST among lay users using several self-test prototypes. Males & females 27 - females;
23 – males
18 years & older (Qualitative (interviews)
Makusha et al., 2015 South Africa To explore: interest in HIV self-testing; potential distribution channels for HIV self-tests to target groups; perception of requirements for diagnostic technologies that would be most amenable to HIV self-testing and opinions on barriers and opportunities for HIV-linkage to care after receiving positive test results Males & females 2: Government Officials; 4: NGOs; 2: Donors; 3 Academic Researchers; 1 Int. stakeholder 18 years & older Qualitative (in-depth interviews)
Martinez Perez et al., 2016 South Africa To examine the feasibility and acceptability of unsupervised oral self-testing for home use in an informal settlement of South Africa. Males 11 - females;
9 - males
18 years & older Qualitative (couple interviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions)
Matovu et al., 2018 Uganda To explore HIVST perceptions, delivery strategies, and post-test experiences among pregnant women and their male partners in Central Uganda. Males 17 - females;
15 - males
18 years & older Qualitative (in-depth interviews)
Ngure et al., 2017 Kenya To address key questions on feasibility, acceptability and use of HIV self-testing among HIV-uninfected persons initiating PrEP Males 10 - females;
20 - males
27–38 years Qualitative (in-depth interviews; focus group discussion) & qualitative
Ritchwood et al., 2019 South Africa To elucidate concerns and issues regarding HIVST rollout among South African youth Males & females Phase 1 (FGDs):
16 females;
19 males,
Phase 2a (Observations):
10 females;
10 males
Phase 2b (Observations):
20 females;
20 males
18–24 years Mixed methods: Qualitative (focus group discussions) & observations