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Table 3 Association between socio-demographic factors and full immunisation status (assessed at 12–23 months) in Rural, Urban formal and slum residence of Nigeria, Multilevel logistic regression analysis (DHS 2003, 2008 and 2013 data)

From: The role of place of residency in childhood immunisation coverage in Nigeria: analysis of data from three DHS rounds 2003–2013

Variable /Category Model 3 of places of residence
Rural (n = 7920) Urban formal (n = 2087) Slum (n = 1836)
Adjusted Odd ratio / (95% C.I) Adjusted Odd ratio / (95% C.I) Adjusted Odd ratio / (95% C.I)
CHILD
Birth order
  > =6 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1 1.30 (0.81,2.08) 2.43 (1.01,5.87) 5.39 (1.37,21.29)
 2–3 1.15 (0.78,1.68) 1.50 (0.72,3.12) 3.00 (1.00,9.13)
 4–5 0.94 (0.66,1.34) 1.38 (0.69,2.75) 2.05 (0.78,5.40)
Place of delivery
 Home 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Health facility 1.47 (1.12,1.94) 2.62 (1.43,4.79) 5.39 (2.18,13.33)
Antenatal attendance
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 8.37 (5.34,13.12) 6.82 (2.29,20.34) 8.07 (2.15,30.25)
 Don’t know 5.07 (3.06,8.41) 2.89 (0.94,8.88) 5.19 (1.21,22.37)
HOUSEHOLD
Maternal education level
 No education 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.67 (1.19,2.35) 1.77 (0.83,3.79) 2.48 (1.02,6.05)
 Secondary 2.49 (1.68,3.69) 4.57 (1.94,10.79) 4.46 (1.68,11.82)
 Higher 4.99 (2.48,10.06) 9.18 (3.05,27.64) 5.03 (1.52,16.65)
Sex of Household head
 Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 1.09 (0.76,1.54) 1.04 (0.60,1.94) 1.55 (0.62,3.86)
Religion
 Islam 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Christian 2.63 (1.79,3.86) 1.59 (0.89,2.86) 5.69 (2.09,15.45)
 Traditionalist/ others 0.20 (0.09,0.45) 0.40 (0.10,1.18) 0.28 (0.09,0.88)
Mother employment status
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.16 (0.81,1.67) 1.78 (0.80,3.98) 0.41 (0.13,1.30)
Maternal age at the child’s birth
 14–19 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–29 1.76 (1.17,2.66) 5.25 (1.86,14.85) 2.18 (0.70,6.84)
 30–39 2.19 (1.32,3.63) 6.64 (2.03,21.75) 2.63 (0.66,10.53)
 40–49 2.05 (1.02,4.13) 9.87 (2.01,48.59) 5.40 (0.80,36.48)
Current marital status
 Never married 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Married/partner 0.80 (0.42,1.54) 1.48 (0.42,5.22) 0.19 (0.03,1.33)
 No longer together 1.14 (0.47,2.78) 2.93 (0.52,16.60) 0.05 (0.03,0.82)
Decision maker on spending of mothers income
 No income mother /missing 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Mother alone 1.05 (0.73,1.50) 1.04 (0.48,2.26) 4.52 (1.34,15.30)
 mother& spouse 1.42 (0.94,2.15) 0.65 (0.27,1.56) 3.00 (0.82,10.97)
 spouse alone 0.80 (0.48,1.36) 0.43 (0.15,1.20) 2.17 (0.51,9.15)
Media exposure
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.91 (1.43,2.54) 1.35 (0.65,2.79) 2.49 (0.95,6.53)
Household wealth
 Poor 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Moderate 1.16 (0.91,1.48) 0.80 (0.50,1.27) 0.89 (0.51,1.57)
 Rich 1.41 (0.87,2.29) 0.70 (0.32,1.53) 1.83 (0.22,15.58)
COMMUNITY
Region
 Northcentral 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Northeast 0.61 (0.39,0.95) 0.56 (0.20,1.55) 0.21 (0.07,0.66)
 Northwest 0.26 (0.16,0.44) 0.85 (0.33,2.14) 0.20 (0.06,0.67)
 Southeast 1.15 (0.70,1.92) 3.01 (1.19,7.57) 0.37 (0.11,1.21)
 Southsouth 1.73 (1.11,2.71) 5.61 (1.88,16.71) 0.41 (0.13,1.21)
 Southwest 0.85 (0.51,1.43) 1.12 (0.54,2.33) 0.88 (0.34,2.31)
Distance to nearest Health Facility
 Big problem 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No/Not a big problem 1.76 (1.35,2.29) 1.77 (0.99,3.17) 2.21 (0.95,5.13)
Household variance (S.E) 0.104(0.164) 0.003(0.141) 0.131 (0.277)
Household ICC 0.245 0.090 0.098
Community variance (S.E) 0.212(0.135)* 0.343 (.123)* 0.374 (0.139)
Community ICC 0.200 0.095 0.133
Goodness of fit- AIC 5457 2185 1941
  1. S.E standard error; AIC Akaike information criterion; ICC Intra Class Correlation; C.I Confidence interval:*p- Value < 0.05