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Table 3 Association between socio-demographic factors and full immunisation status (assessed at 12–23 months) in Rural, Urban formal and slum residence of Nigeria, Multilevel logistic regression analysis (DHS 2003, 2008 and 2013 data)

From: The role of place of residency in childhood immunisation coverage in Nigeria: analysis of data from three DHS rounds 2003–2013

Variable /CategoryModel 3 of places of residence
Rural (n = 7920)Urban formal (n = 2087)Slum (n = 1836)
Adjusted Odd ratio / (95% C.I)Adjusted Odd ratio / (95% C.I)Adjusted Odd ratio / (95% C.I)
CHILD
Birth order
  > =61.001.001.00
 11.30 (0.81,2.08)2.43 (1.01,5.87)5.39 (1.37,21.29)
 2–31.15 (0.78,1.68)1.50 (0.72,3.12)3.00 (1.00,9.13)
 4–50.94 (0.66,1.34)1.38 (0.69,2.75)2.05 (0.78,5.40)
Place of delivery
 Home1.001.001.00
 Health facility1.47 (1.12,1.94)2.62 (1.43,4.79)5.39 (2.18,13.33)
Antenatal attendance
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes8.37 (5.34,13.12)6.82 (2.29,20.34)8.07 (2.15,30.25)
 Don’t know5.07 (3.06,8.41)2.89 (0.94,8.88)5.19 (1.21,22.37)
HOUSEHOLD
Maternal education level
 No education1.001.001.00
 Primary1.67 (1.19,2.35)1.77 (0.83,3.79)2.48 (1.02,6.05)
 Secondary2.49 (1.68,3.69)4.57 (1.94,10.79)4.46 (1.68,11.82)
 Higher4.99 (2.48,10.06)9.18 (3.05,27.64)5.03 (1.52,16.65)
Sex of Household head
 Male1.001.001.00
 Female1.09 (0.76,1.54)1.04 (0.60,1.94)1.55 (0.62,3.86)
Religion
 Islam1.001.001.00
 Christian2.63 (1.79,3.86)1.59 (0.89,2.86)5.69 (2.09,15.45)
 Traditionalist/ others0.20 (0.09,0.45)0.40 (0.10,1.18)0.28 (0.09,0.88)
Mother employment status
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes1.16 (0.81,1.67)1.78 (0.80,3.98)0.41 (0.13,1.30)
Maternal age at the child’s birth
 14–191.001.001.00
 20–291.76 (1.17,2.66)5.25 (1.86,14.85)2.18 (0.70,6.84)
 30–392.19 (1.32,3.63)6.64 (2.03,21.75)2.63 (0.66,10.53)
 40–492.05 (1.02,4.13)9.87 (2.01,48.59)5.40 (0.80,36.48)
Current marital status
 Never married1.001.001.00
 Married/partner0.80 (0.42,1.54)1.48 (0.42,5.22)0.19 (0.03,1.33)
 No longer together1.14 (0.47,2.78)2.93 (0.52,16.60)0.05 (0.03,0.82)
Decision maker on spending of mothers income
 No income mother /missing1.001.001.00
 Mother alone1.05 (0.73,1.50)1.04 (0.48,2.26)4.52 (1.34,15.30)
 mother& spouse1.42 (0.94,2.15)0.65 (0.27,1.56)3.00 (0.82,10.97)
 spouse alone0.80 (0.48,1.36)0.43 (0.15,1.20)2.17 (0.51,9.15)
Media exposure
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes1.91 (1.43,2.54)1.35 (0.65,2.79)2.49 (0.95,6.53)
Household wealth
 Poor1.001.001.00
 Moderate1.16 (0.91,1.48)0.80 (0.50,1.27)0.89 (0.51,1.57)
 Rich1.41 (0.87,2.29)0.70 (0.32,1.53)1.83 (0.22,15.58)
COMMUNITY
Region
 Northcentral1.001.001.00
 Northeast0.61 (0.39,0.95)0.56 (0.20,1.55)0.21 (0.07,0.66)
 Northwest0.26 (0.16,0.44)0.85 (0.33,2.14)0.20 (0.06,0.67)
 Southeast1.15 (0.70,1.92)3.01 (1.19,7.57)0.37 (0.11,1.21)
 Southsouth1.73 (1.11,2.71)5.61 (1.88,16.71)0.41 (0.13,1.21)
 Southwest0.85 (0.51,1.43)1.12 (0.54,2.33)0.88 (0.34,2.31)
Distance to nearest Health Facility
 Big problem1.001.001.00
 No/Not a big problem1.76 (1.35,2.29)1.77 (0.99,3.17)2.21 (0.95,5.13)
Household variance (S.E)0.104(0.164)0.003(0.141)0.131 (0.277)
Household ICC0.2450.0900.098
Community variance (S.E)0.212(0.135)*0.343 (.123)*0.374 (0.139)
Community ICC0.2000.0950.133
Goodness of fit- AIC545721851941
  1. S.E standard error; AIC Akaike information criterion; ICC Intra Class Correlation; C.I Confidence interval:*p- Value < 0.05
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