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Table 1 Key psychosocial outcomes to be measured

From: SALaMA study protocol: a mixed methods study to explore mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-affected youth in Detroit, Michigan

InstrumentRationale/Outcome MeasuredComponents UsedValues
Children’s Hope Scale [37]Measures students’ hope, as related to their agency and pathways for meeting goals6-item scaleAverage score on all six questions that may take a value from 1 to 6, with a higher score reflecting greater hope
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) [38]Used to screen for poor dimensions of mental healthTwo of the sub-scales from the original five: Peer Problems and Prosocial sub-scalesEach sub-scale may take value from 0 to 10, with a higher score reflecting greater peer problems relationships or more pro-social behaviors, respectively
Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) [39, 40]Measures resilience among children and adolescents while allowing for cultural variation across multiple settings, and has been previously validated with adolescents in refugee/asylum-seeking contexts12-item version of the original 28-item scaleMay take a value from 12 to 36, with a higher value reflecting greater resilience
Hopkins Symptom Checklist [41]Measures multiple dimensions of mental health, including depressive symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and externalizing symptoms; has been previously validated with refugee/asylum-seeking adolescents in multiple languages37-item version of the original 58-item checklistAll sub-scales may take a value from 1 to 4, with a higher score reflecting greater symptomology
Stressful Life Events checklist [42]Measures exposure to eleven stressful lifetime events and experiences pertaining to drastic changes in the family in the last year12-item scaleMay take a value from 0 to 12, with a higher value reflecting exposure to a greater number of events
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) [43, 44]Measures perceived social support from three respective sources: friends, family, and a significant other; has been validated with multiple adolescent populations, including Arab American adolescents12-item scaleMay take a value from 0 to 7, with a higher value reflecting greater perceived social support
Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) scale [20, 45]Measures students’ sense of belonging in their school environment; has been used and validated with adolescent refugee/asylum-seeking populations in the U.S.18-item scaleMay take a value from 18 to 90, with a higher value reflecting a greater sense of school belonging