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Table 2 Types of costs of problem gambling in Sweden. Types of costs and their causality adjustment factors (%). A factor of 20% means that total costs were multiplied by 0.8 to discount costs by 20% in cases of an unclear causality

From: The societal costs of problem gambling in Sweden

Type Description Causality adjustment factor*
A. Direct costs
 A.1. Treatment and care
  Treatment of gambling problems Public and private costs for treatment and work by non-profit organizations 0%
  Treatment of consequences of gambling problems Public and private costs for treating mental illnesses and suicide attempts 20%/50%
 A.2. Debt counseling and management
  Debt counseling Costs for debt counseling 20%
  Debt management Costs for debt recovery, debt restructuring, and personal bankruptcy 20%
 A.3. Crime and legal costs
  Police Costs for investigations of crimes 20%
  Courts Costs for criminal cases in general courts and social insurance-related cases in administrative courts 20%
  Prisons Costs for incarceration 20%
 A.4. Prevention, research, and regulation
  Prevention Costs for prevention of gambling problems 0%
  Research Costs for research on gambling problems 0%
  Regulation Costs for regulation and supervision of the gambling market 93%
 A.5. Other direct costs
  Divorce Costs for divorce applications 50%
  Recruitment Recruitment costs of employers 50%
  Homelessness Costs for homeless shelters
B. Indirect costs
 B.1. Reduced workplace productivity Productivity loss from reduced workplace productivity 20%
 B.2. Absence from work Productivity loss from sick leave and from incarceration 20%
 B.3. Unemployment Productivity loss from unemployment 50%
 B.4. Premature death Productivity loss from suicides 20%
C. Intangible costs
 C.1. Physical violence Reduced quality of life of the gambler and other household members from physical violence 20%
 C.2. Emotional distress Reduced quality of life of the gambler and other household members from mental illness, suicide attempts, separation, and unemployment 20%/50%
 C.3. Harm to crime victims Reduced quality of life and damage to victims from crime exposure 20%