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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics of the participants (n = 157)

From: Prevalence and associated factors of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders and insomnia among visually impaired Japanese individuals

   All visually-impaired individuals
Age (yrs) 61.0 ± 16.4 (range: 14-88)
Gender Female/Male 61 (38.9) / 96 (61.1)
Social status Employed or student/ Unemployed 115 (73.2) / 42 (26.8)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 22.8 ± 3.3 (range:15.2-34.8)
Visual status VI/BL 59 (37.6) / 98 (62.4)
Light perception With/Without 80 (51.0) / 77 (49.0)
Cause of visual impairment Congenital/Acquired 84 (53.5) / 73 (46.5)
Age at the onset of visual impairment 19.1 ± 20.7 (range:0-75)
Morbidity length of visual impairment 41.9 ± 21.4 (range:6-79)
Living alone 37 (23.6)
Living with family member 120 (76.4)
Public assistance With/without 113 (72.0)
Exercise habits Yes/No 93 (59.2) / 64 (40.2)
Use of hypnotics Yes/No 34 (21.7) / 123 (78.3)
Bedtime (h:m) 22:43 ± 01:16 (range: 19:00-27:00)
Wake-up time (h:m) 06:02 ± 01:04 (range: 03:00-09:00)
Sleep duration (hrs:m) 05:53 ± 01:17 (range: 03:00-11:00)
Sleep onset latency (min) 31.3 ± 39.6 (range: 1-195)
Wake-up after sleep onset (min) 35.8 ± 50.0 (range: 3-360)
  1. Date are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)
  2. VI visual impairment, BL blindness