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Table 2 Comparison of descriptive characteristics between participants and non-participants

From: Prevalence and associated factors of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders and insomnia among visually impaired Japanese individuals

  Participants (n = 157) Non-participants (n = 343) Statistics
Age (yrs) 59.5 ± 17.0 54.4 ± 18.4 Z = 3.26 p = 0.001
Gender Female 61 (31.0) 136 (69.0) χ (1) = 0.03 p = 0.866
Male 96 (31.7) 207 (68.3)   
Social status Employed/student 105 (30.2) 243 (69.8) χ (1) = 0.77 p = 0.382
Unemployed 52 (34.2) 100 (65.8)   
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 4.3 22.9 ± 3.8 Z = 0.65 p = 0.517
Visual status Visual impairment 59 (31.1) 131 (68.9) χ (1) = 0.00 p = 0.980
Blindness 98 (31.6) 212 (68.4)   
Light perception With 80 (32.3) 168 (67.7) χ (1) = 0.17 p = 0.682
Without 77 (30.6) 175 (69.4)   
Cause of visual impairment Congenital 84 (33.5) 167 (66.5) χ (1) = 0.10 p = 0.318
Acquired 73 (29.3) 176 (70.7)   
Age at the onset of visual impairment 19.4 ± 20.8 14.2 ± 18.8 Z = 2.82 p = 0.005
Morbidity length of visual impairment 40.2 ± 21.7 40.3 ± 21.8 Z = 0.08 p = 0.934
Living alone 36 (33.0) 75 (67.0) χ (1) = 0.18 p = 0.672
Living with family member 121 (30.9) 268 (69.1)   
Exercise habits Yes 65 (28.6) 162 (71.4) χ (1) = 2.85 p = 0.091
No 92 (33.7) 181 (66.3)   
  1. Date are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)