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Table 1 Description of Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome and Study Design for Included Studies (PICOS)

From: Are dietary interventions with a behaviour change theoretical framework effective in changing dietary patterns? A systematic review

Parameter Description
Population All adults aged 18 years and over. Studies where participants were drawn from a population with a psychiatric condition such as an eating disorder were excluded.
Intervention Diet: for the purpose of this review, an intervention involving a “whole dietary pattern” such as the Mediterranean diet [11] Dash diet [18] MIND diet [17] or foods analysed from 4 out of 5 of the food groups (protein, grains/carbohydrates, oil and fats, dairy, fruit/vegetable. Studies were not included where the dietary behaviour was a de facto medical treatment e.g. gluten free diet, also single food group and nutrients diet studies such as, fruit and vegetable, or omega 3 were excluded, as these don’t from a “whole dietary” pattern.
Theoretical model: Studies were included that used a theoretical framework to deliver their intervention. Theoretical models such as the Health Belief Model (HBM) [84] Stages of Change Model [85] and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) [86] were included.
Comparison Usual diet, information booklet.
Outcome Improved diet quality, increased adherence to diet.
Study design Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials published in English.