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Table 7 Associations of early life famine exposure and adulthood anthropometric measurements stratified by sex and residency, multivariable linear regression analysis, North Wollo Zone, Raya Kobo district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2019 (n = 1384)

From: Impact of early life famine exposure on adulthood anthropometry among survivors of the 1983–1985 Ethiopian Great famine: a historical cohort study

Heighta Famine exposure status
Early life exposed Prenatal exposed post-natal exposed Adolescence Exposed Non-exposed
Male −4.67 (−6.36, −2.97) −1.44 (−2.86, −0.03) −1.42 (−3.05, 0.21) −1.1 (− 1.30, −4.83) Ref.
Female − 0.16 (− 4.56, 4.24) − 2.73 (− 4.45, − 1.02) − 2.30 (− 4.05, − 0.53) − 1.60 (− 3.05, 4.16) Ref.
Urban −0.36 (− 1.56, 0.82) 0.07 (− 3.82, − 3.97) 0.98 (− 2.42, 0.45) 0.45 (− 6.04, 5.13) Ref.
Rural −4.24 (− 6.39, − 2.09) −2.47 (− 4.63,0.31) − 3.33 (−5.43, − 1.24) −2.28 (−9.15, 4.72) Ref.
Waist to height ratio (WHtR)
 Male 0.02 (0.02,0.04) 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) 0.02 (0.01, 0.04) 0.07 (0.03, 0.04) Ref.
 Female 0.07(− 0.08,0.02) 0.02 (0.04 0.05) 0.02 (0.02, 0.05) 0.02 (0.03, 0.04) Ref.
 Urban 0.03 (0.02, 0.05) 0.03 (0.03,0.054) 0.10 (−0.20, 0.02) 0.03 (− 0.09, 0.03) Ref.
 Rural 0.07 (−0.06, 0.02) 0.03 (0.02, 0.03) 0.07(−0.12, 0.05) 0.05 (−0.05, 0.05) Ref.
Body mass index
 Male −0.15 (− 0.93, 0.63) −0.20 (− 1.20, 0.80) 0.20 (−2.4, 2.7) − 1.36 (− 2.27, 0.52) Ref.
 Female 0.23 (− 0.62, 1.07) 0.84 (− 0.19, 1.88) 0.16 (− 0.89, 1.22) 0.16(− 0.89, 1.22) Ref.
 Urban −0.34(− 1.05, 0.37) −0.07(− 0.99, 0.84) −0.58(− 1.42, 0.38) −0.37(− 1.15, 0.41) Ref.
 Rural 0.56(−0.44, 1.56) 1.06 (− 0.25, 2.38) 0.65 (− 0.60, 1.92) 0.02 (− 1.01, 1.04) Ref.
  1. All β-coefficients are related to the non-exposed groups, Ref—Reference
  2. All analyses were adjusted for age, educational status, wealth index, dietary pattern, increased blood pressure, physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, history of chronic diseases and effect modifiers
  3. aAdult height adjusted for sex, age, residence, educational status, wealth index and effect modifiers