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Table 1 Background characteristics of the study participants according to Ethiopian great famine exposure status, NorthWollo Zone, Raya Kobo district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2019 (n = 1384)

From: Impact of early life famine exposure on adulthood anthropometry among survivors of the 1983–1985 Ethiopian Great famine: a historical cohort study

Variables Famine exposure status P- value
Early life exposeda
n = 1038
Prenatal exposed
n = 346
Postnatal exposed
n = 346
Adolescent exposed
n = 346
Non-exposed
n = 346
Age in years, mean ± SD 40.5 ± 6.2 35.1 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 0.5 48.6 ± 3.5 31.20 ± 0.5 < 0.001*
Sex, n (%)
 Female 591 (56.9) 203 (58.6) 207 (59.8) 181 (52.3) 171 (49.4) < 0.001*
 Male 447 (43.1) 143 (41.4) 139 (40.2) 165 (47.7) 175 (50.6)
Place of residence, n (%)
 Urban 331 (31.8) 110 (31.8) 107 (30.9) 114 (32.9) 102 (29.5) 0.76
 Rural 707 (68.2) 236 (68.2) 239 (69.1) 232 (67.1) 244 (70.5)
Educational status, n (%)
 Illiterates 488 (47.2) 130 (37.5) 163 (47.1) 195 (56.5) 88 (25.5) < 0.001*
 Primary school 256 (24.6) 87 (25.1) 82 (23.6) 87 (25.1) 68 (19.7)
 Secondary school 166 (15.9) 77 (22.3) 56 (16.2) 33 (9.5) 114 (32.9)
 Above secondary 128 (12.3) 52 (15.1) 45 (13.1) 31 (8.9) 76 (21.9)
Marital status, n (%)
 Single 126 (12.1) 53 (15.3) 53 (15.3) 20 (5.8) 101 (29.2) < 0.001*
 Married 712 (68.6) 228 (65.9) 237 (68.5) 247 (71.4) 223 (64.4)
 Divorced/widowed 200 (19.3) 65 (18.8) 56 (16.2) 79 (22.8) 22 (6.4)
Physical activity level, n (%)
 Low 149 (14.4) 31 (8.9) 53 (15.3) 65 (18.8) 29 (8.4) 0.145
 Moderate 255 (24.5) 76 (21.9) 97 (28.1) 82 (23.6) 75 (21.7) < 0.001*
 Vigorous 634 (61.1) 239 (69.2) 196 (56.6) 199 (57.6) 242 (69.9)
Dietary pattern, n (%)
 Healthy 486 (46.8) 171 (49.4) 155 (44.8) 160 (46.3) 167 (48.3) 0.36
 Unhealthy 552 (53.2) 175 (50.6) 191 (55.2) 186 (53.7) 179 (51.7)
Wealth index, n (%)
 Low SES 291 (28.2) 127 (36.7) 121 (34.9) 43 (12.4) 145 (41.9) < 0.001*
 Medium SES 333 (32.0) 158 (45.6) 129 (37.3) 46 (13.3) 152 (43.9)
 High SES 414 (39.8) 61 (17.7) 96 (27.8) 257 (74.3) 49 (14.2)
Current smoker,n (%)
 Yes 20 (1.9) 9 (2.6) 6 (1.7) 5 (1.4) 10 (2.8) 0.05*
 No 1018 (98.1) 337 (97.4) 340 (98.3) 341 (98.5) 336 (97.2)
Current drinker, n (%)
 Yes 522 (50.3) 224 (64.7) 165 (47.7) 133 (38.5) 236 (68.2) < 0.001*
 No 516 (49.7) 122 (35.3) 181 (52.3) 213 (61.5) 110 (31.8)
  1. aPrenatal, post-natal and adolescence exposed, P-value—represents Independent samples t-tests for continuous variables or χ2-test for categorical variables, SES – socio-economic status,* Statistical significance