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Table 2 Results of the multivariable logistic regression model with current depression (PHQ-8 ≥ 10) as the dependent variable (data from the 2014/2015 German Health Update [GEDA] survey on all never-smokers; n = 10,274; main effects model, no interaction effects included)

From: Is exposure to secondhand smoke associated with current depression (PHQ-8) among never-smokers? Results from a survey among German adults

  Odds Ratio p-value 95% confidence interval
Exposure to SHS Never or almost never (ref.) 1.00    
Less than 1 h per day 1.22 0.154 0.93 1.61
1 h per day or more 1.598 0.018 1.08 2.35
Sex Male (ref.) 1.00    
Female 1.61* < 0.001 1.35 1.92
Age (in 5-year groups) 0.95* < 0.001 0.92 0.97
Partnership status With a partner (ref.) 1.00    
Without a partner 1.49* < 0.001 1.26 1.76
Socioeconomic status Low (ref.) 1.00    
Medium 0.72 0.001 0.58 0.88
High 0.52* < 0.001 0.41 0.67
Social support (OSS 3) Low support (ref.) 1.00    
Moderate support 0.34* < 0.001 0.28 0.40
High support 0.20* < 0.001 0.16 0.25
Place of residence Western Germany (ref.) 1.00    
Eastern Germany 0.91* 0.327 0.75 1.10
Degree of urbanization District-free city (ref.) 1.00    
Urban district 0.81 0.039 0.67 0.99
Rural district with densely populated area 0.90 0.381 0.71 1.14
Sparsely populated rural district 0.90 0.398 0.71 1.14
Presence of chronic diseases Yes (ref.) 1.00    
No 0.28* < 0.001 0.24 0.34
Body mass index 25 or higher (ref.) 1.00    
Less than 25 0.93 0.425 0.79 1.10
Alcohol consumption No regular consumption (ref.) 1.00    
No weekly risky consumption 0.63* < 0.001 0.52 0.77
Risky consumption 0.80 0.120 0.61 1.06
  1. SHS Secondhand smoke, OSS 3 Oslo Social Support Scale 3, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, ref. reference category
  2. * statistically significant at 5%-level