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Table 2 Comparison of studies examining pesticides in breastmilk from India (2006–2018)

From: A mixed-methods study of pesticide exposures in Breastmilk and Community & Lactating Women’s perspectives from Haryana, India

Reference, location of study Samples analyzed (n) Sample type &
[range] detected
LODs, LOQs, ADIs Extraction protocol, matrix volume & analytical method
Kumar, Dayal, Shukla, Singh, Joseph, 2006 [45]
Agra, India
32 Breastmilk:
DDTs: 0.17–0.179 mg/kg
HCH: 0.123–0.131 mg/kg
LODs: 0.001 μg/mL
LOQs: 0.01 μg/mL
USEPA method (1980) [46] and Ejobi et al., 1996 [47]
20 mL milk
GC-ECD
Kumar, Baroth, Soni, Bhatnagar & John, 2006 [17]
Rajasthan, India
50 Breastmilk:
Rural: 5.0625 mg/L
Urban: 3.243 mg/L
Blood:
Rural: 4.608 mg/L
Urban: 3.777 mg/L
Not reported Takei et al., 1983 (milk) [48]
Bush et al., 1984 (blood) [49]
GC-ECD
Devanathan et al., 2009 [50]
New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
64 Breastmilk:
DDT: 47–1200 ng/g lw
HCH: 6.3–1900 ng/g lw
Not reported Kuniseu et al., (2004) [51]
10 g milk
GC-ECD
Mishra & Sharma, 2011 [52]
Assam, India
205 Breastmilk:
ΣDDT: 2870 ± 1570, 3210 ± 2080 ng/g lw
ΣHCH: 2330 ± 1160, 2720 ± 2140 ng/g lw
LOD: 0.001 ng/g
LOQ:
DDT: 0.01–0.2 ng/g lw
HCH: 0.02–0.3 ng/g lw
ADIs:
DDT: 16–18 μg/kg bw/day
HCHs: 13–15 μg/kg bw/day
Dua et al., (1997) [53]
GC-ECD
Maurya, Kumar Joseph, 2013 [54]
Uttar Pradesh, India
10 Breastmilk:
ΣDDT: 158 ng/mL
LOD: 0.001 μg/mL
LOQ:0.01 μg/mL
Ejobi et al., 1996 [47]
5 mL
LC-ECD
Bedi, Gill, Aulakh, Kaur, Sharma & Pooni, 2013 [29]
Punjab, India
53 Breastmilk:
ΣDDT: 1914.2 ng/g lw (63% DDE)
ΣHCH: 199.6 ng/g lw
LOD: 1 ng/g on whole milk basis Battu et al., (2004) [55]
5 mL
GC-ECD
Confirmed with GC-MS
Sharma, Gill, Bedi & Pooni, 2014 [30]
Punjab, India
127 Breastmilk:
DDE: ND – 43.19 ng/g (9 > PTDI)
HCH: ND – 133.88 ng/g (11 > PTDI)
LOD: 1 ng/g on whole milk Battu et al., (2004) [55]
5 g milk
GC-ECD
Confirmed with GC-MS
Sharma, Sharma,  Chandel, & Wise, 2016 [56]
Himachal Pradesh
153 Breastmilk:
DDE: BDL – 0.064 mg/L
DDT: BDL – 0.018 mg/L
Mean ΣDDT: 0.145 mg/kg fat (n = 27% +)
Mean DDE: 0.138 mg/kg fat (n = 27% +)
Mean DDT: 0.005 mg/kg fat (n = 1.31% +)
LOQ: 0.005–0.001 mg/kg QuEChERS method developed
10 mL milk
GC-ECD
Confirmed with GC-MS (SRM)
Bawa et al., 2018 [31]
Bathinda, Ludiana, Punjab
150 Breastmilk:
DDT: 415.3–519.2 ng/g lw
ΣDDTs:
519.2 ± 1017.4 ng/g (ND – 4583.1)
415.3 ± 846.32 ng/g (ND – 3212.5)
LOD: 8–20 ng/g Battu et al., (2004) [55]
10 mL milk
GC-ECD
Confirmed with GC-MS