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Table 3 Multilevel analysis of individual and community level factors of complete basic childhood vaccination among children aged 12–23 months in East Africa

From: Complete basic childhood vaccination and associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in East Africa: a multilevel analysis of recent demographic and health surveys

Variable Null model (model without independent variables) Model 1(model adjusted with individual level variables) AOR with 95% CI Model 2 (model adjusted with community level variables) AOR with 95% CI Model 3 (model adjusted with individual and community level variables) AOR with 95% CI
Maternal age
 15–24   1   1
 25–34   1.13 (1.03, 1.23)   1.21 (1.10, 1.32)*
 ≥ 35   1.41 (1.24, 1.61)   1.50 (1.31, 1.71)*
Maternal education
 No   1   1
 Primary   1.22 (1.12, 1.33)   1.26 (1.15, 1.38)*
 Secondary and above   1.52 (1.35, 1.72)   1.54 (1.36, 1.75)*
Husband education
 No   1   1
 Primary   1.26 (1.14, 1.40)   1.25 (1.13, 1.39)*
 Secondary and above   1.37 (1.22, 1.53)   1.24 (1.11, 1.40)*
Media exposure
 No   1   1
 Yes   1.15 (1.06, 1.24)   1.23 (1.13, 1.33)**
Preceding birth interval (in months)
 < 24   1   1
 24–48   1.34 (1.21, 1.48)   1.28 (1.15, 1.42)*
 ≥ 49   1.34 (1.20, 1.49)   1.35 (1.21, 1.50)*
Number of ANC visit
 No visit   1   1
 1–3   3.82 (3.30, 4.42)   3.24 (2.78, 3.77)*
 ≥ 4   4.33 (3.74, 5.01)   3.68 (3.17, 4.28)**
PNC visit
 No   1   1
 Yes   1.41 (1.30, 1.52)   1.34 (1.23, 1.47)*
Place of delivery
 Home   1   1
 Health facility   1.52 (1.40, 1.64)   1.48 (1.35, 1.62)**
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal   1   1
 Caesarean   0.97 (0.84, 1.13)   1.05 (0.90, 1.22)
Child size at birth
 Large   1   1
 Average   1.14 (1.06, 1.24)   1.09 (1.01, 1.19)**
 Small   1.05 (0.96, 1.15)   0.99 (0.91, 1.10)
Parity
 1–3   1   1
 4–6   0.88 (0.80, 0.96)   0.83 (0.75, 0.91)*
 ≥ 7   0.64 (0.56, 0.74)   0.60 (0.52, 0.70)*
Marital status
 Single   1   1
 Married   1.19 (1.02, 1.39)   1.14 (0.97, 1.33)
 Divorced/widowed/separated   0.88 (0.74, 1.06)   0.85 (0.71, 1.08)
Wealth status
 Poor   1   1
 Middle   1.22 (1.11, 1.33)   1.16 (1.06, 1.28)*
 Average   1.21 (1.11, 1.32)   1.20 (1.09, 1.33)**
Country
 Ethiopia    1 1
 Burundi    7.76 (6.48, 9.31) 4.21 (3.47, 5.11)*
 Kenya    3.04 (2.68, 3.46) 1.96 (1.69, 2.27)*
 Comoros    2.07 (1.69, 2.52) 1.17 (0.94, 1.45)
 Madagascar    2.12 (1.81, 2.48) 1.48 (1.24, 1.76)*
 Malawi    4.92 (4.13, 5.87) 2.08 (1.72, 2.52)*
 Mozambique    2.76 (2.41, 3.15) 1.60 (1.37, 1.86)*
 Rwanda    1.01 (0.84, 1.19) 0.41 (0.34, 0.50)*
 Tanzania    4.17 (3.62, 4.79) 2.10 (1.79, 2.46)*
 Uganda    1.85 (1.57, 2.18) 0.91 (0.76, 1.09)
 Zambia    4.09 (3.54, 4.73) 1.77 (1.50, 2.10)*
 Zimbabwe    5.05 (4.22, 6.05) 1.83 (1.49, 2.26)*
Residence
 Rural    1 1
 Urban    1.48 (1.36, 1.60) 0.92 (0.84, 1.02)
Community women education
 Low    1 1
 High    1.21 (1.09, 1.34) 0.99 (0.89, 1.11)
Community poverty
 Low    1.39 (1.27, 1.51) 1.21 (1.11, 1.32)**
 High    1 1
Community media exposure
 Low    1 1
 High    1.09 (0.99, 1.20) 0.97 (0.88, 1.07)
Random effect analysis result
 Cluster level variance 0.15 (0.11, 0.19) 0.09 (0.06, 0.14) 0.13 (0.09, 0.17) 0.08 (0.06, 0.12)
 ICC 0.42 (0.33, 0.55) 0.28 (0.19, 0.39) 0.38 (0.28, 0.51) 0.27 (0.19, 0.40)
 LR-test chibar2(01) = 115.38 p-value< 0.0001 chibar2(01) = 48.85 p-value< 0.0001 chibar2(01) = 83.03 P-value< 0.001 chibar2(01) = 84.51 p-value< 0.0001
 MOR 1.45 (1.38, 1.51) 1.33 (1.26, 1.43) 1.40 (1.33, 1.48) 1.31 (1.26, 1.39)
 PCV Ref 0.4 0.13 0.47
 LLR −11,725.223 −10,792.516 −11,029.99 −10,437.633
 Deviance 23,450.446 21,585.032 22,059.98 20,875.266
  1. *p-value < 0.05, ** p-value < 0.01, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, ICC Intra-class Correlation Coefficient, LLR Log-likelihood Ratio, LR Likelihood Ratio, MOR Median Odds Ratio, PCV Proportional Change in Variance