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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study sample, stratified by urban vs rural settings, n (%)

From: Correction to: Neighborhood’s locality, road types, and residents’ multimorbidity: evidence from China’s middle-aged and older adults

Characteristic Total
(N = 13,413)
Urban
(N = 5639)
Rural
(N = 7774)
P value
Road type
 unpaved roads 3104 (23.14) 1001 (17.75) 2103 (27.05) < 0.0001
 paved roads 8767 (65.36) 4173 (74.00) 4594 (59.09)
 others 1541 (11.50) 465 (8.54) 1077 (13.85)
Primary care institutions
 0 3226 (24.05) 1333 (23.64) 1893 (24.35) 0.07
 1 5188 (38.68) 2210 (39.19) 2978 (38.31)
 2 3098 (23.10) 1339 (23.75) 1759 (22.63)
  ≥ 3 1901 (14.17) 757 (13.42) 1144 (14.72)
Groundwater system
 no 9495 (70.79) 3290 (58.34) 6205 (79.82) < 0.0001
 yes 3918 (29.21) 2349 (41.66) 1569 (20.18)
Sex
 men 6431 (47.95) 2660 (47.17) 3771 (48.51) 0.13
 women 6982 (52.05) 2979 (52.83) 4003 (51.49)
Age, years a 59.09 (±10.16) 58.91 (±10.14) (59.21 (±10.18) < 0.0001
Marital status
 married 10,741 (80.08) 4475 (79.36) 6266 (80.60) 0.08
 other 2672 (19.92) 1164 (20.64) 1508 (19.40)
Education attainment
 illiteracy 3672 (27.38) 1543 (27.36) 2129 (27.39) 0.67
 some primary school 2371 (17.68) 1019 (18.07) 1352 (17.39)
 primary school 2895 (21.58) 1195 (21.19) 1700 (21.87)
 junior school or above 4475 (33.36) 1882 (33.37) 2593 (33.35)
Household income (quartile)
 1st (the poorest) 3218 (23.99) 1477 (26.19) 1741 (22.40) < 0.0001
 2nd 3466 (25.84) 1363 (24.17) 2103 (27.05)
 3rd 3345 (24.94) 1418 (25.15) 1927 (24.79)
 4th (the richest) 3384 (25.23) 1381 (24.49) 2003 (25.77)
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 18.5 935 (6.97) 358 (6.35) 577 (7.42) < 0.001
  ≥ 18.5 and < 25 8362 (62.34) 3449 (61.16) 4913 (63.20)
  ≥ 25 and < 30 (overweight) 3462 (25.81) 1532 (27.17) 1930 (24.83)
  ≥ 30 (obese) 654 (4.88) 300 (5.32) 354 (4.55)
Health care insurance
 uninsured 893 (6.66) 375 (6.65) 518 (6.66) 0.14
 RCMI 9771 (72.85) 4063 (72.05) 570 (73.42)
 others 2749 (20.50) 1201 (21.30) 1548 (19.91)
Physical activity
 never 12,686 (94.58) 5144 (91.22) 7542 (97.02) < 0.0001
 seldom 112 (0.84) 75 (1.33) 37 (0.48)
 a weekly basis 129 (0.96) 88 (1.56) 41 (0.53)
 a daily basis 486 (3.62) 332 (5.89) 154 (1.98)
  1. Note: amean (± standard deviation)