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Table 1 Characteristics of included observational studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis in Ethiopia

From: Predictors of immunization coverage among 12–23 month old children in Ethiopia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Region Study setting Study area Study design Sample size Response rate NOS Study subject Predictors OR 95% CI
Animaw W et al. 2014 [30] Amhara community based Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria District CS 630 100% 7 12–23 month Mother had formal education, (OR = 4.60; 95% CI: 3.13–6.77), gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 2.00–5.15), knowledge on immunization schedule (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30,0.71).travelling time < 60 min, (OR = 7.60; 95% CI: 2.67–21.66)
Aregawi G et al. 2017 [31] Tigray community based Laelay Adiabo District UMCC 270 100% 8 12–23 month Knowledge on schedule,(OR = 6.98; 95% CI: 3.94–12.37), PNC follow up, (OR = 7.08; 95% CI: 3.67–13.65)
Asfaw A et al. 2019 [23] SNNP community based Sodo Zurea Distric UMCC 344 100% 9 12–23 month Had formal education, (OR = 2.34;95% CI: 1.15–3.64), knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.73–4.48), PNC follow up, (OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.73–4.48)
Ayal D and Bekele T 2014 [32] Amhara community based Mecha District CS 497 100% 9 12–23 month Father had formal education, (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.90,1.82), urban residence, (OR = 3.94, 95% CI: 1.76–8.82). gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.30,2.84), knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.42–5.39)
Birhan, Y., et al. 2014 [33] SNNP community based Hawassa Zuria District UMCC 308 98% 8 12–23 month Mother had formal education,(0R = 5.62;95% CI: 3.34–9.47), urban residence (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17–0.69), gave birth to the health facility (OR = 5.95;95% CI: 2.93,12.11). knowledge on immunization -schedule,(OR = 5.02; 95% CI: 2.79–9.04)
knowledge on immunization benefit, (OR = 2.05;95% CI: 1.09–3.87). ANC follow up, (OR = 0.98;95% CI: 0.65,1.49). TT vaccination, (OR = 3.47;95% CI: 2.10–5.73).
Bizuneh Ayano 2014 [34] SNNP community based Hosanna Town CS 508 100% 8 12–23 month knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 2.28;95% CI:1.79–9.04). ANC follow up, (OR = 6.49; 95% CI: 2.76–15.26). TT vaccination, (OR = 4.85;95% CI: 3.38–6.97)
Etana and Deressa 2012 [21] Oromia community based Ambo District CS 536 100% 7 12–23 month Gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 0.71;95%CI: 0.43,1.17). knowledge on age immunization complete, (OR = 10.03; 95% CI: 5.02,9.75). ANC follow up, (OR = 6.38; 95% CI: 4.01,10.15)
Girmay and Dadi 2019 [35] Tigray community based Debre Markos Town CS 620 99.5% 8 12–23 month Mother had formal education, (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.20–2.59). gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 3.52;95% CI: 2.36–5.25), family size > = 4, (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.54,3.57). knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.15–0.34), travelling time < 60 min, (OR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.47–3.30)
Gualu and Dilia 2017 [22] Amhara community based Debre Markos Town CS 288 96.8% 7 12–23 month ANC follow up, (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.32–10.19)
Hailu et al. 2019 [36] SNNP community based Wonago district CS 1116 82.70% 7 12–23 month Knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 2.57;95% CI: 2.00–3.30). ANC follow up, (OR = 0.61;95% CI: 0.46–0.80), TT vaccination, (OR = 3.37;95% CI: 2.58–4.40)
Henok T et al. 2009 [37] SNNP community based Wonago district UMCC 266 99.2% 7 12–23 month Knowledge on immunization benefit, (OR = 2.58;95% CI: 1.09–6.15).
Kassahun et al. 2015 [38] Amhara community based Lay Armacheho district CS 751 99.2% 8 12–23 month Knowledge on age immunization complete, (OR = 2.42,95% CI: 1.71–3.43), urban residence, (OR = 1.47;95% CI: 0.96–2.26).
TT vaccination (OR = 2.45;95% CI: 1.64–3.64)
Lake et al. 2014 [36] Amhra community based Dassie town CS 724 100% 7 12–23 month Knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 6.12, 95% CI: 4.41,8.49). knowledge on age immunization complete, (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.24–1.29)
family size > = 4, (OR = 1.14;95% CI: 0.75–1.72)
Legesse and Dechasa 2015 [39] Oromia community based Sinana district CS 519 98.5% 8 12–23 month Knowledge on immunization schedule, (OR = 2.16;95% CI: 1.45–3.22), father had formal education, (OR = 0.18;95% CI: 0.07–0.44), travelling time < 60 min, (OR = 2.16;95% CI: 0.69–6.72),
ANC follow up, (OR = 3.03,95% CI: 2.02–4.55)
Melaku Kindie et al. 2018 [40] SNNP community based Amanuel district UMCC 308 100% 9 12–23 month gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 0.15;95% CI: 0.09–0.25), ANC follow up, (OR = 5.10;95% CI: 3.12–8.34), PNC follow up, (OR = 3.28;95% CI: 1.84–5.85).
Meleko et al. 2018 [41] SNNP community based Mizan Aman town CC 322 100% 8 12–23 month Mother had formal education, (OR = 3.03;95% CI: 1.91–4.80), gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 2.05;95% CI: 1.30–3.23)
Mebrahtom and Birhane 2013 [42] Afar community based Amibara district CS 1534 98.3% 8 12–23 month Knowledge on immunization schedule, 21.50 (11.47–40.30). ANC follow up, (OR = 20.49;95% CI: 10.32–40.70), PNC follow up, (OR = 4.07;95% CI: 2.67,6.22). TT vaccination, (OR = 36.80;95% CI: 14.95–90.56)
Mekonnen et al. 2019 [43] Amhara community based Minjarshenkora district CS 566 98.8% 8 12–23 month Travelling time < 60 min, (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92)
Mohammed and Atomsa 203 Oromia community based Kombolcha District CS 685 98.7% 7 12–23 month ANC follow up, (OR = 2.42;95% CI: 1.64–3.58)
Mohamud et al. 2014 [44] Somali community based Jigjig district CS 582 100% 8 12–23 month Mother had formal education, (OR = 3.63;95% CI: 2.17–6.08), gave birth to the health facility, (OR = 3.06;95%CI: 2.10–4.47), urban residence, (OR = 2.63;95% CI: 1.85–3.73), TT vaccination, (OR = 4.94;95% CI: 2.82–8.66)
Negussie A et al. 2016 [45] SNNP community based Arbegona district CS 548 99.45% 7 12–23 month Knowledge on immunization benefit, (OR = 6.30;95% CI: 2.33–3.87). family size > = 4, (OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.52–3.24)
Tefera et al. 2018 [46] SNNP community based Worabe town CS 484 89.6% 8 12–23 month travelling time < 60 min, (OR = 0.30;95% CI: 0.20–0.44), ANC follow up, (OR = 0.32;95% CI: 0.11–0.95)
Tesfaye et al. 2018 [20] Amhara community based East Gojam Zone CS 846 98.1% 8 12–23 month Urban Residence, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.23–2.15), ANC follow up, (OR = 3.86;95% CI: 2.42–6.16)
Tessema et al. 2019 [47] Pastoral/semi-pastoral community based CORE Group Polio Project
implementation areas
CS 600 96.6% 8 12–23 month Urban residence, (OR = 9.39;95% CI: 6.42–13.75)
Wado et al. 2014 [48] Oromia community based Gilgel Gibe Health and Demographic Surveillance System CS 889 100% 8 12–23 month Mother had formal education, (OR = 1.46;95% CI: 1.07–1.99)
Yismaw A et al. 2019 [49] Amhara community based Gondar city CS 301 100% 8 12–23 month Knowledge on age immunization complete,(OR = 9.43;95% CI: 5.16–17.23), knowledge on immunization benefit, (OR = 1.54;95% CI: 0.82–2.89)
  1. Key: CS cross-sectional, UMCC unmatched case-control