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Table 2 Household Socioeconomic and food environment characteristics by food shopping trip patterns clusters

From: Beyond the supermarket: analyzing household shopping trip patterns that include food at home and away from home retailers

Mean
(LSE)
Total Population Superstore (SS) Supermarket
(SM)
Mix Weighted t-tests
SS vs
SM
SS + SM
vs Mix
Household Characteristics
 Size 2.45 (0.05) 2.30 (0.09) 2.11 (0.07) 2.60 (0.06)   ***
 Presence of Child (%) 33.20 (1.37) 28.08 (2.44) 21.64 (1.81) 38.04 (1.94) * ***
 Monthly Income 5194.19 (206.38) 4238.03 (287.38) 4524.11 (252.49) 5645.63 (260.25)   ***
 SNAP Participant (%) 13.19 (0.88) 19.34 (1.64) 16.09 (1.90) 10.72 (1.00)   ***
 Working
Adults (%)
58.68 (1.03) 52.00 (3.33) 46.61 (2.21) 64.07 (1.25)   ***
 Vehicle Access (%) 89.52 (1.20) 88.97 (2.34) 87.28 (1.78) 90.35 (1.26)   
Healthy Food Attitudes
 Not enough time to prepare healthy meals (%) 20.23 (0.74) 15.94 (2.03) 12.83 (1.89) 23.57 (1.12)   ***
 Healthy Food too Costly (%) 32.43 (1.44) 34.07 (3.38) 31.15 (2.88) 32.39 (1.96)   
 Healthy Food Does Not Taste Good (%) 21.70 (1.02) 19.41 (2.29) 13.59 (1.34) 24.74 (1.39) * ***
Food Environment
 Superstore Availability 2.04 (0.29) 1.99 (0.23) 1.76 (0.35) 2.14 (0.36)   
 Supermarket Availability 2.60 (0.50) 1.70 (0.28) 2.84 (0.43) 2.77 (0.63) **  
 Fast Food Restaurant Availability 12.52 (1.56) 9.91 (1.40) 12.47 (2.30) 13.22 (1.77)   
 Non-Fast Food Restaurant Availability 55.33 (7.74) 41.33 (6.94) 56.46 (10.24) 58.62 (8.71)   
Regional Indicator
 Rural (%) 34.34 (3.67) 39.05 (4.52) 28.42 (4.80) 34.91 (4.15)   
 Northeast (%) 15.61 (2.47) 8.93 (2.87) 16.20 (3.47) 17.17 (2.63)   **
 Midwest (%) 31.15 (3.52) 46.19 (8.06) 15.71 (5.11) 31.91 (3.59) *  
 South (%) 35.22 (3.99) 31.78 (6.53) 43.35 (6.49) 33.66 (4.09)   
 West (%) 18.01 (2.71) 13.09 (3.31) 24.74 (5.08) 17.26 (2.54) *  
  1. Means of all variables are reported. The means of binary variables are reported as percentages (%). Household income is measured as the monthly income in U.S. dollars. Working adults measured the percentages of all adults in the household that are currently working. Vehicle access indicates that a household owns or leases a vehicle. FoodAPS used the definition of rural from the ERS Food Access Research Atlas, which is based on census tract population. Thus, the binary variable for living in a rural area indicates if a household lived in a census tract that had a population of fewer than 2500 people. Food environment variables measure the count of a specific retailer type within 1-mile radius of households in urban areas, and 10-mile radius of households in rural areas
  2. Mix Cluster in which no single retailer type dominated shopping trip patterns
  3. SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
  4. LSE linearized standard errors
  5. * = p < 0.05 ** = p < 0.01 *** = p < 0.001