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Table 3 Multilevel mixed effects estimates for SF36 mental health component

From: A multilevel mixed effects analysis of informal carers health in Australia: the role of community participation, social support and trust at small area level

Variables (no. of observations = 12,767 and no. of SA1s = 5004) Model 1 Coeff (95% CI) Model 2 Coeff (95% CI) Model 3 Coeff (95% CI) Model 4 Coeff (95% CI) Model 5 Coeff (95% CI) Model 6 Coeff (95% CI) Model 7 Coeff (95% CI)
Variance (Individual-level random effects) 270.740*** (262.516, 279.222) 267.462*** (259.074, 276.121) 245.992*** (238.372, 253.855) 202.326*** (196.193, 208.652) 335.019*** (324.729, 345.634) 183.028*** (177.458, 188.773) 183.003*** (177.434, 188.748)
Variance (SA1 level random effect) 39.162*** (32.587, 47.063) 38.244*** (31.498, 46.434) 25.019*** (19.585, 31.959) 15.656*** (11.755, 20.851) 32.350*** (25.171, 41.577) 12.569*** (9.127, 17.309) 12.556*** (9.116, 17.294)
Variance (Carer random slope)   47.688** (23.183, 98.096) 37.779** (16.590, 86.032) 44.053*** (24.043, 80.719) 33.125**(10.240, 107.160) 28.850** (12.680, 65.640) 28.255** (12.210, 65.384)
Covariance (Carer and SA1)   4.101 (−10.91, 19.114)      
Carer −3.863*** (−4.996, −2.730) −3.890*** (−5.145, − 2.635) −4.164*** (−5.335, − 2.994) −2.626*** (− 3.712, − 1.540) − 4.264*** (− 5.555, − 2.973) −1.770*** (− 2.879, −0.661) 1.381 (−8.751, 11.513)
Civic engagement, political participation and breadth of participation    0.827*** (0.570, 1.084) 0.630*** (0.399, 0.861) −0.302** (− 0.602, − 0.003) .082 (− 0.144, 0.308) .097 (−.137, 0.331)
Informal social connectedness    4.691*** (4.452, 4.930) 1.279*** (1.026, 1.531) 0.628*** (0 .297, 0.959) 1.039*** (0 .790, 1.288) 1.035*** (0.777, 1.293)
Personal social exclusion     −4.538*** (− 4.710, − 4.366) −2.894*** (− 3.130, − 2.657) − 3.656*** (− 3.832, − 3.479) −3.669*** (− 3.852, − 3.486)
Personal social cohesion     3.063*** (2.844, 3.282) 2.599*** (2.308, 2.890) 2.600*** (2.384, 2.817) 2.659*** (2.434, 2.885)
Trust      1.753*** (1.442, 2.063) 1.849*** (1.612, 2.086) 1.823*** (1.577, 2.069)
Distrust      −1.170*** (− 1.401, −.940) − 1.310*** (− 1.482, − 1.139) − 1.312*** (− 1.489, − 0.134)
Carer # Civic engagement, political participation and breadth of participation        −0.091 (− 0.922, 0.740)
Carer # Informal social connectedness        1.126** (0.207, 2.046)
Carer # Personal social exclusion        −3.456*** (−4.091, −2.820)
Carer # Personal social cohesion        1.912*** (1.143, 2.681)
Carer # Trust        2.133*** (1.291, 2.976)
Carer # Distrust        −1.343*** (−1.964, −0.721)
  1. Notes. All the p-values have been replaced by stars and categorised as follows. ***: p < 0.01; **: p < 0.05; *: p < 0.10; However, confidence intervals use the usual 95% confidence level. Model 1: Null model with SA1 random effects and carer status at individual level; Model 2: Model 1 added with carer random slopes at SA1 level; Model 3: Model 2 added with community participation at individual level; Model 4: Model 3 added with personal social connection at individual level; Model 5: Model 4 added with trust at individual level; Model 6: Model 5 added with other individual level confounders; Model 7: Model 6 with community and social connection interactions with Carer