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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression results for determinants of under-five mortality in the 5 years preceding the survey-adjusted odds ratio

From: Proximate, intermediate, and distal predictors of under-five mortality in Chad: analysis of the 2014–15 Chad demographic and health survey data

Determinants Model I Model II Model III
  AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI
Region
 Betha 2.64* 1.15 6.06 1.89 0.60 6.01 1.84 0.58 5.82
 Borkou/Tibesti 3.50** 1.54 7.97 2.61 0.75 9.01 2.46 0.71 8.53
 FChari baguirmi 3.83** 1.81 8.14 2.19 0.72 6.67 2.04 0.67 6.25
 Guera 1.49 0.63 3.53 0.57 0.16 1.94 0.57 0.17 1.94
 Hadjer-lamis 2.93* 1.36 6.29 2.23 0.74 6.72 2.24 0.74 6.78
 Kanem 1.77 0.77 4.05 1.35 0.39 4.63 1.32 0.39 4.76
 Lac 1.96 0.86 4.46 1.39 0.39 4.94 0.83 0.24 2.84
 Logone occidental 2.36* 1.05 5.31 0.86 0.25 2.91 1.35 0.38 4.76
 Lagone oriental 3.70*** 1.71 7.98 1.39 0.42 4.53 0.84 0.24 2.83
 Mandoul 2.50* 1.12 5.56 0.90 0.27 3.03 1.45 0.39 5.48
 Mayo kebbi est 1.93 0.86 4.35 1.56 0.42 5.77 1.45 0.39 5.48
 Mayo kebbi oust 0.92 0.37 2.28 0.54 0.14 2.07 0.51 0.13 1.99
 Moyen chari 2.28 0.99 5.23 0.89 0.26 3.07 0.88 0.25 3.03
 Ouaddai 1.86 0.80 4.35 1.47 0.53 4.10 1.40 0.50 3.96
 Salamat 0.96 0.37 2.53 0.55 0.16 1.87 0.54 0.16 1.84
 Tandjile 2.94** 1.36 6.40 1.26 0.35 4.50 1.21 0.34 4.36
 Wadi fira 1    1    1   
 N’djamena 1.87 0.83 4.22 1.05 0.34 3.19 0.96 0.31 2.93
 Barh el gazel 1.26 0.50 3.13 0.96 0.26 3.50 0.94 0.26 3.42
 Ennedi 1.64 0.67 4.00 1.65 0.50 5.41 1.53 0.47 4.96
 Sila 2.04 0.86 4.84 1.02 0.33 3.16 1.01 0.32 3.15
Place of residence
 Urban 1    1    1   
 Rural 0.73* 0.55 0.97 0.85 0.58 1.25 0.88 0.59 1.31
Wealth index
 Poorest     1.25 0.88 1.79 1.25 0.87 1.80
 Poorer     1.14 0.80 1.61 1.11 0.78 1.60
 Middle     0.92 0.64 1.31 0.93 0.65 1.32
 Richer     1    1   
 Richest     1.50 0.97 2.33 1.47 0.94 2.29
Ethnicity
 Gorane     3.29 0.89 12.12 3.36 0.91 12.35
 Arab     2.82 0.71 11.16 2.67 0.68 10.50
 Baguirmi/Barma     8.04** 1.75 36.99 8.95** 1.96 40.90
 Kanembou/Bornou     3.54 0.89 14.03 3.55 0.90 14.01
 Boulala/Medego     3.46 0.80 14.95 3.49 0.82 14.48
 Ouadai/Maba     2.69 0.69 10.44 2.73 0.71 10.57
 Zaghawa/Bideyat     1    1   
 Dadajo/Kibet     6.81** 1.62 28.70 6.96** 1.67 29.01
 Bidio/Migami     7.28* 1.58 33.65 7.42** 1.63 33.81
 Mounding     2.29 0.33 16.08 2.56 0.37 18.00
 Massa/Mousseye     2.78 0.60 12.83 3.07 0.66 14.18
 Toupouri/Kera     0.87 0.11 6.79 1.00 0.13 7.88
 Sara     4.99* 1.07 23.26 5.23* 1.13 24.16
 Peul/Foulbe     5.43* 1.26 23.45 5.44* 1.27 23.25
 Tema/Assongori     3.25 0.69 15.31 3.22 0.69 14.99
 Gabri/Kabalaye     5.57 0.99 31.39 6.15* 1.10 34.33
 Marba/Lele     3.43 0.65 18.24 3.69 0.69 19.61
 Mesmedje/massalat     5.13 0.94 28.07 5.35 0.97 29.47
 Karo/xime     4.02 0.63 25.53 4.68 0.73 30.18
 Achit/banda/kim     3.26 0.75 14.10 3.36 0.79 14.40
Religion
 Christianity     1.37 0.72 2.61 1.20 0.73 2.71
 Islam     1    1   
 Others     1.30 0.49 3.44 1.30 0.47 3.58
Mother’s educational level
 No education     1.72* 1.06 2.77 1.89* 1.16 3.10
 Primary     1.55 0.97 2.48 1.70* 1.06 2.74
 Secondary/Higher     1    1   
Partner's educational level
 No education     0.94 0.66 1.34 0.98 0.68 1.40
 Primary     0.89 0.61 1.29 0.93 0.63 1.35
 Secondary/Higher     1    1   
Mother's Occupation
 Not working     1.28 0.17 9.45 1.22 0.16 9.24
 Official     1    1   
 Sales and services     1.59 0.21 11.87 1.57 0.21 12.00
 Agricultural     1.46 0.20 11.00 1.44 0.19 11.08
 Manual     2.57 0.30 21.86 2.29 0.26 19.91
Partner's occupation
 Official     1    1   
 Sales and services     1.15 0.67 1.96 1.09 0.63 1.86
 Agricultural     1.02 0.60 1.73 0.97 0.57 1.67
 Manual     1.21 0.67 2.17 1.11 0.62 1.99
Sex of the child
 Male        1.03* 1.05 1.63
 Female        1   
Size of the child at birth
 Very large        1   
 Larger than average        1.11 0.79 1.56
 Average        1.24 0.88 1.75
 Smaller than average        1.22 0.81 1.85
 Very small        1.22 0.81 1.85
Birth rank and birth interval
 First birth rank        1.58** 1.13 2.21
 2–3 birth rank & = < 2 years of birth interval    1.16 0.76 1.77
 > = 4 birth rank & > 2 years of birth interval    1.06 0.80 1.41
 > = 4 birth rank & = < 2 years of birth interval    1   
Age of mother at childbirth
 < 20 years        1.13 0.87 1.45
 More than 20 years        1   
Antenatal care visit
 No        1.22 0.93 1.60
 Yes        1   
Place of delivery
 Home        1   
 Health facility        1.15 0.79 1.67
Delivery assistance
 By TBA/Others        0.76 0.55 1.05
 By SBA/Health professional      1   
 Pseudo R2 0.020    0.036    0.045   
  1. Source: Authors’ computation from the 2014–15 Chad DHS data
  2. AOR adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, TBA Traditional birth attendants, SBA Skilled birth attendants
  3. Model I adjusted for distal factors
  4. Model II adjusted for distal and intermediate factors
  5. Model III adjusted for distal, intermediate and proximate factors
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