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Table 2 Intervention effectiveness and the reported use of theoretical foundation, BCT, social context and EMI/JITAI in the included reviews

From: Key facets to build up eHealth and mHealth interventions to enhance physical activity, sedentary behavior and nutrition in healthy subjects – an umbrella review

Author
Type of review
Intervention duration
Included study designs
Theoretical foundation BCT Social context EMI/JITAI
Böhm et al. 2019 [47]
Systematic review
1–12 months
4 RCTs, 1 RC cross over, 2 before-and-after trials
Total number of theory-based studies NA
4/7 (57%) social cognitive theory
3/7 (43%) additional BCTs 7/7 (100%) recruited in schools with interventions in and outside the school setting
Combining school-based interventions with family or community involvement for social support is potentially effective
NA
Buckingham et al. 2019 [53]
Systematic review
1–12 months
10 RCTs, 10 prospective cohort studies, 1 combination of methods mentioned above, 3 cluster-RCT, 1 parallel group uncontrolled randomized trial, 1 prospective cluster trial with an asynchronous control group
15/25 (60%) based on a named behavior change theory and/or principles of behavioral economics
2/25 (8%) studies alluded to BCTs or theory in their discussion
8/25 (32%) neither theory nor BCT
Most frequent BCTs:
Self-monitoring of the behavior or outcome (n = 22, 88% of studies)
provision of feedback on the behavior or outcome (n = 21, 84%)
goal setting for the behavior or outcome (n = 17, 68%)
social comparison (n = 14, 56%)
social support (n = 12, 48%)
25/25 (100%) public and private sector workplace setting
No associations were found between type of workplace and impact on PA
NA
Direito et al. 2017 [52]
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Median = 9 weeks
21 RTCs
NA Total BCTs: M = 5.4/93 BCTs (SD = 2.6, range 0 to 12)
More BCTs were employed with intervention groups (M = 6.9, SD = 2.6, range 2 to 12) than with comparator groups (M = 3.1, SD = 2.2, range 0 to 10)
Most frequent BCTs:
81% goal setting (behavior
74% self-monitoring of behavior
65% social support (unspecified)
55% feedback on behavior
55% instruction on how to perform the behavior
48% adding objects to the environment
45% information about health consequences
45% prompts/cues
NA NA
Prompts and cues common BCT
Ferrer et al. 2017 [51]
Systematic review
3–12 weeks
5 RCTs, 2 single group designs, 1 within-subject crossover
4/8 (50%) theory-based interventions
1/8 (13%) theory of planned behavior
1/8 (13%) social cognitive theory
2/8 (25%) not specified
8/8 (100%) interventions used behavior modification strategies including goal setting, self-monitoring, prompts, and social support 8/8 (100%) social-media interventions (facebook)
7/8 (88%) of the Facebook interventions ↑ some type of PA behavior change (i.e., interactions, main effects for time, differences between conditions)
2/8 (25%) ↑ for the treatment group compared to the control group.
NA
Hamel et al. 2011 [56]
Systematic review
2 weeks - 2 years
7 RCTs, 5 quasi-experimental, 1 repeated measures, 1 pretest-posttest control group design
9/14 (64%) theory-based interventions
Social cognitive theory most frequent
Other theories:
Theory of reasoned action
transtheoretical model
health belief model
theory of planned behavior
attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy model
4/14 (29%) having more than one theory
NA 9/14 (64%) school-based
3/14 (21%) home-based
1/14 (7%) camp- and home-based
1/14 (7%) scout troop and home-based
3/14 (21%) of these included parental involvement
School-based interventions were more effective than e.g. home-based interventions and parental support might be important
NA
McIntosh et al. 2017 [50]
Systematic review
6 weeks - 4 months
6 RCTs, 3 before and after quasi-experimental designs 1 cluster-RCT
9/10 (90%) theory-based interventions
5/10 (50%) social cognitive theory
2/10 (20%) theory of planned behavior
1/10 (10%) transtheoretical model
1/10 (10%) SMART goals
NA 10/10 (100%) students attending school, college or university
Effect of social context not analyzed
NA
Muellemann et al. 2018 [49]
Systematic review
1–24 months
18 RCTs,
2 quasi-experimental design
16/20 (80%) theory-based interventions
most common:
9/20 (45%) social cognitive theory
8/20 (40%) transtheoretical model
7/20 (35%) self-determination theory
7/20 (35%) i-change model
NA NA NA
Nour et al. 2016 [54]
Systematic review and meta-analysis
one-off contact - 6 months
14 RCTs
6/14 (43%) theory- or education-based interventions
5/14 (36%) transtheoretical model
2/14 (14%) social cognitive theory
2/14 (14%) theory of planned behavior and the theory of habit formation
7/14 (50%) applied self-efficacy in their intervention
NA no group intervention
11/14 (79%) university setting
2/14 (14%) N.A.
1/14 (7%) home based
Effect of social context not analyzed
NA
Rocha et al. 2019 [55]
Meta-analysis
one-time session - 24 weeks
14 RCTs, 3 cluster-RCTs, 2 non-randomized studies
NA 1 to 7 BCTs used20/40 BCT categories identified
Most common:68% provide instruction on how to perform the behavior
47% Provide feedback on performance
26% goal setting on behavior
8/19 (42%) school setting
6/19 (32%) community-based
2/19 (11%) workplace-based
1/19 (5%) clinic-based (prevention)
1/19 (5%) online-based
1/19 (5%) supermarket-based
Effect of social context not analyzed
NA
15/19 (79%) tailored interventions
4/19 (21%) were nontailored interventions
Schoeppe et al. 2016 [57]
Systematic review
1–24 weeks
19 RCTs, 4 pre-post studies, 3 controlled trials, 1 randomized trial
15/27 (56%) theory-based interventions
4/27 (15%) transtheoretical model
4/27 (15%) social cognitive theory
3/27 (11%) self-determination theory
2/27 (7%) theory of planned behavior
1/27 (4%) control systems
1/27 (4%) theory of self-regulation
1/27 (4%) behavior change wheel
NA 6/27 (22%) social support
3/6 interaction with peers
4/6 friendly team challenges
Effect of social context not analyzed
NA
Stephenson et al. 2017 [48]
Systematic review and meta-analysis
5 days - 24 months
17 RCTs
NA 1 to 15 BCTs used
20/93 BCTs categories identified
most common:
88% instruction on how to perform a behavior
71% social support (unspecified)
65% prompts and cues
65% adding objects to the environment
10/17 (59%) workplace setting
5/17 (29%) Community/home setting
2/17 (12%) workplace and community/home setting
Effect of social context not analyzed
NA
Prompts and cues common BCT
  1. Abbreviations: BCT behavior change technique, CI confidence interval, HE healthy eating, EMI ecological momentary intervention, FVI fruit and vegetable intake, g Hedges’ g, I2 percentage of variation across studies that is due to heterogeneity rather than chance, JITAI just-in-time adaptive intervention, M mean, NA not available PA physical activity, RCT randomized control trial, SB sedentary behavior, SMD standardized mean difference, ↑ significant higher value (p < 0.05), Ø no significant difference, ↓ significant lower value