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Table 3 Risk factors associated with the incident PI

From: Level of physical activity among middle-aged and older Chinese people: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

Variables RR(95%CI) p value
Age (years)
 45–60 Ref Ref
 60–75 1.23 (1.03 to 1.46) 0.02
  ≥ 75 1.65 (1.21 to 2.26) < 0.001
 Female 0.92 (0.73 to 1.14) 0.44
 Urban 0.73 (0.6. to 0.90) < 0.001
 Having a spouse 0.82 (0.67 to 1.01) 0.06
Education levels
 Illiteracy Ref Ref
 Elementary school 0.92 (0.76 to 1.11) 0.37
 Middle/high school 0.83 (0.65 to 1.06) 0.13
 College or above 0.39 (0.16 to 0.93) 0.03
 Currently working 0.67 (0.55 to 0.83) < 0.001
PCE
 1/5 Ref Ref
 2/5 0.91 (0.72 to 1.15) 0.43
 3/5 1.01 (0.80 to 1.28) 0.94
 4/5 0.84 (0.65 to 1.07) 0.15
 5/5 0.84 (0.64 to 1.09) 0.19
 Public facilities 1.03 (1.01 to 1.07) 0.02
BMI levels
 Underweight 1.08 (0.78 to 1.48) 0.65
 Normal Ref Ref
 Overweight 1.15 (0.96 to 1.37) 0.13
 Obese 1.24 (0.97 to 1.58) 0.09
 NCDs 0.99 (0.83 to 1.18) 0.93
Smoking status
 Never Ref Ref
 Quit 0.95 (0.69 to 1.31) 0.75
 Yes 1.00 (0.8 to 1.24) 0.98
Alcohol
 Never Ref Ref
  < Once a month 1.00 (0.74 to 1.36) 1.00
  > Once in a month 0.85 (0.69 to 1.06) 0.14
 ADL/IADL disabilities 1.22 (1.03 to 1.46) 0.03
  1. RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, ref reference group, PCE per capita expenditure, PA physical activity, BMI body mass index, NCD non-communicable diseases