Skip to main content

Table 6 Effects of cash transfers on young people (15–29 years) in male- and female-headed households compared to the original comparison group, Manicaland Cash Transfer Trial, Manicaland, Zimbabwe, 2010–2011

From: Spillover HIV prevention effects of a cash transfer trial in East Zimbabwe: evidence from a cluster-randomised trial and general-population survey

Outcome: Males (15–29) Females (15–29)
Male-headed households Female-headed households Male-headed households Female-headed households
% CT vs. ctrl (ref.) % CT vs. ctrl (ref.) % CT vs. ctrl (ref.) % CT vs. ctrl (ref.)
Ctrl CT ATE (95% CI) Ctrl CT ATE (95% CI) Ctrl CT ATE (95% CI) Ctrl CT ATE (95% CI)
Primary outcomes
Had sexual debuta 3.33 8.62 5.18 (−0.59, 10.9) 5.21 5.99 −1.58 (−8.55, 5.38) 19.3 21.1 4.56 (−5.58, 14.7) 13.0 16.8 −0.09 (−9.45, 9.27)
Had sex in past 30 days 85.3 59.7 −20.0 (−39.1, −0.90) 52.2 52.7 1.29 (−21.7, 24.3) 85.9 79.4 −7.57 (−18.1, 2.92) 53.9 52.5 2.51 (−16.6, 21.6)
Condom use (last sex) 26.5 40.3 10.9 (−8.41, 30.1) 52.2 43.6 −12.9 (−35.5, 9.76) 12.7 13.9 1.74 (−7.40, 10.9) 25.6 20.8 −2.52 (−20.6, 15.5)
Multiple partnersc 20.6 28.4 3.30 (−16.5, 23.1) 13.0 21.8 6.92 (−11.9, 25.7) 0.00 2.78 NAb   0.00 2.00 NAb  
Secondary outcomes
Psychological distressd 11.7 12.8 1.27 (−6.28, 8.82) 13.3 9.12 −4.55 (−12.8, 3.72) 27.5 23.3 −3.87 (− 12.9, 5.20) 18.1 16.7 0.34 (−8.18, 8.86)
Enrolled in schoola 56.7 71.3 17.9 (6.65, 29.1) 69.8 72.4 8.28 (−2.68, 19.2) 63.2 58.6 −8.94 (−20.1, 2.19) 66.7 69.9 5.15 (−6.48, 16.8)
Alcohol usee 20.4 14.0 0.60 (−6.70, 7.91) 10.2 10.2 −1.17 (−6.89, 4.55) 0.00 0.00 NAb   0.00 0.73 NAb  
Smokes cigarettes 10.7 7.20 0.07 (−5.69, 5.83) 7.03 6.34 −2.48 (−7.70, 2.75) 0.83 0.00 NAb   0.00 0.00 NAb  
Takes recreational drugs 15.5 8.80 −3.50 (−12.1, 5.05) 7.81 8.83 −0.18 (−6.23, 5.86) 0.83 0.33 NAb   0.00 0.00 NAb  
  1. Ctrl Control, CT Cash transfer, ref. Reference group, ATE Average treatment effect, CI Confidence interval
  2. Sample: Young people (15–29 years) who had sex before for primary outcomes and all young people for secondary outcomes, restricted to male- and female-headed households, respectively
  3. Numbers are percentages (%) of individuals reporting the outcome in the control and treatment (CT) groups of the Manicaland Trial and the estimated ATEs with 95% CIs, separately for individuals living in male- and female-headed households. ATEs for each outcome were estimated from separate mixed-effects logistic regression model, controlling for age and wealth index quarters (not shown), with study site and treatment cluster random effects. No results for transactional sex are shown because of very small sample sizes. Full results, including p-values and sample sizes, can be found in Additional file 3 (section 2)
  4. a Analyses were restricted to those aged 15–20 years as it was not applicable to older individuals
  5. b No regression model was estimated due to sample size limitations
  6. c Having had more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months
  7. d Reporting at least 7 symptoms of psychological distress of a 25-item scale
  8. e Having been to a beer hall (bar) in the past month or drinking more than 3 drinks when drinking alcohol