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Table 1 Sex- and age group-specific DALY rate, SDI, and behavioural and metabolic risk predictor data

From: Forecasting disability-adjusted life years for chronic diseases: reference and alternative scenarios of salt intake for 2017–2040 in Japan

   GBD 2017 data NHNS data
   All ages DALYs rate per
100,000 population [18]
SDI Number of NHNS participant Mean age (SD) Salt intake (g/day) Obesity (%) Current smoker (%) Current alcohol drinker (%)
Year Sex Cardiovascular diseases Chronic kidney diseases Stomach cancer
1990 Men 4649.6 400.2 1164.3 0.803 6182 47.4 (16.1) 14.3 22.3 53.1 52.1
  Women 3674.8 378.3 622.9 0.803 7025 48.7 (16.8) 11.8 21.8 9.7 6.1
  Both sexes combined 4154.1 389.1 889.1 0.803 13,207 48.1 (16.5) 13.0 22.0 28.5 26.0
1995 Men 4626.0 458.2 1164.2 0.823 4976 47.8 (16.5) 15.0 23.9 52.7 54.4
  Women 3573.7 412.2 579.8 0.823 5766 49.0 (17.3) 13.0 20.9 10.7 7.4
  Both sexes combined 4090.4 434.8 866.8 0.823 10,742 48.4 (17.0) 13.9 22.2 28.2 27.0
2000 Men 4523.5 497.9 1117.1 0.834 4513 50.1 (17.0) 13.8 26.8 47.4 50.8
  Women 3344.3 427.2 520.1 0.834 5149 51.7 (17.5) 12.2 21.3 11.5 9.0
  Both sexes combined 3922.2 461.9 812.7 0.834 9662 50.8 (17.2) 12.9 23.8 27.0 27.0
2005 Men 4646.2 528.7 1077.1 0.844 3591 52.5 (17.5) 12.4 28.6 39.3 36.7
  Women 3313.6 439.7 470.2 0.844 4155 54.5 (17.8) 10.7 22.0 11.4 7.4
  Both sexes combined 3964.9 483.2 766.8 0.844 7746 53.6 (17.7) 11.5 24.9 24.3 20.9
2010 Men 4664.1 577.6 1017.6 0.853 3740 53.9 (17.5) 11.4 30.4 32.2 35.4
  Women 3300.7 466.2 424.7 0.853 4239 55.6 (17.8) 9.8 21.1 8.4 7.0
  Both sexes combined 3965.6 520.5 713.8 0.853 7746 54.8 (17.7) 10.6 25.3 19.5 20.3
2016 Men 4590.3 555.3 931.8 0.863 12,132 56.6 (17.6) 10.8 31.7 30.5 34.0
  Women 3400.8 480.5 385.1 0.863 14,010 58.1 (18.0) 9.2 21.3 7.6 7.5
  Both sexes combined 3980.4 517.0 651.5 0.863 26,142 57.4 (17.8) 9.9 25.9 18.2 19.8
  1. GBD Global Burden of Disease study, NHNS National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan, DALYs Disability-adjusted life years, SDI Socio-demographic index, SD Standard deviation. Note that we used data for each year, but the table lists only selected years