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Table 1 Weighted Distributions of the Study Sample, CLHLS, 2002–2014

From: Individual-level factors attributable to urban-rural disparity in mortality among older adults in China

  Total Rural Urban   Total Rural Urban
Total sample # 28,235 17,170 11,046 Family/Social Support (continued)    
     First talking-to-person when needed    
Death in 2002–2014a 31.8 33.4 28.5*** Spouse 49.5 48.0 52.9***
Urban-rural residence     Child/relative 25.0 25.3 24.3***
 Rural 32.0 100.0 Friend 22.6 23.7 20.0***
 Urban 68.0 100.0 Social worker/housekeeper 0.6 0.4 0.9***
Demographic Background     Nobody 2.4 2.4 1.9***
Mean Age 71.9 72.0 71.7*** Health Behaviors    
Sex     Level of leisure activity    
 Women 50.4 50.2 50.9 Low 8.7 9.4 7.1***
 Men 49.6 49.8 49.1 Intermediate 51.2 54.2 44.5***
Ethnicity     High 40.2 36.4 48.4***
 Non-Han 6.9 7.8 4.8*** Currently smoking    
 Han 93.1 92.2 95.2*** No 72.8 72.4 73.7
Socioeconomic Factors     Yes 27.2 27.6 26.3
Years of schooling     Ever engaged in physical labor    
 0 46.5 52.1 34.6*** No 15.6 8.9 29.9***
 1–6 38.3 38.2 38.4*** Yes 84.4 91.1 70.1***
 7+ 15.2 9.7 27.0*** Health Conditions    
Economic independence     IADL disabled    
 No 47.9 55.3 32.2*** No 68.8 67.5 71.5***
 Yes 52.1 44.7 67.8*** Yes 31.2 32.5 28.5***
White-collar occupation     ADL disabled    
 No 87.0 92.7 74.7*** No 93.8 94.3 92.8**
 Yes 13.0 7.3 25.3*** Yes 6.2 5.7 7.2**
Family economic condition     Cognitively impaired    
 Not good 84.3 85.9 81.0*** No 88.0 86.7 91.0***
 Good 15.7 14.1 19.0*** Yes 12.0 13.3 9.0***
Got adequate access to healthcare     Has 1+ chronic disease    
 No 7.7 9.1 4.7*** No 42.1 65.4 35.0***
 Yes 92.3 90.9 95.3*** Yes 57.9 54.6 65.0***
Family/Social Support     Survey Year    
Currently married     2002 48.0 48.1 47.9***
 No 34.8 35.6 33.0* 2005 18.0 15.8 22.6***
 Yes 65.2 64.4 67.0* 2008 24.1 23.3 25.7***
Close proximity to children     2011 9.9 12.8 3.8***
 No 15.7 12.0 23.5***     
 Yes 84.3 88.0 76.5***     
  1. Note: (1) Values are reported as weighted percentages or means with the exception for the total sample size. Urban and rural percentages were estimated separately; and percentages were estimated from the total sample size
  2. (2) aThe unweighted percentage of deceased persons from 2002 to 2014 was 69.4% for rural areas and 66.4% for urban areas (68.3% combined)
  3. (3) Statistical Tests (T-test for means, Chi-square tests for categorical variables) between urban and rural groups. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001