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Table 2 Subgroup analysis of the prevalence of HPV infection in female sex workers

From: Prevalence and genotype distribution of genital human papillomavirus infection in female sex workers in the world: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Categories No. of Studies Pooled prevalence (%) (95% CI) Heterogeneity test
I2%, p-value
Differences between subgroups; χ2 test
(p-value)
Overall   61 42.6 (38.5–46.7) 96.9%, P < 0.0001  
Diagnostic method PCR 46 43.2 (37.8–48.8) 97.0%, P < 0.01 P = 0.02†
Hybridization 7 41.4 (32.4–51.1) 96.2%, P < 0.01
PCR-Hybridization 3 40.9 (37.7–44.2) 58.4%, P = 0.09
TMA 4 31.8 (26.6–37.6) 75.0%, P < 0.01
Sample type Cervical 50 41.9 (37.6–46.4) 96.6%, P < 0.01 P = 0.04†
Endocervical 4 31.1 (21.1–43.4) 92.1%, P < 0.01
Vaginal 3 68.4 (37.7–88.5) 99.2%, P < 0.01
Cervico-vaginal 2 46.2 (40.2–52.2) 0%, P = 0.65
Diagnostic index L1 gene 26 45.1 (38.0–52.3) 96.9%, P < 0.01 P < 0.0001†
E6/E7 mRNA transcripts 4 31.8 (26.6–37.6) 75.0%, P < 0.01
E6 gene 1 75.7 (70.5–80.3) NA, NA
E6/E7 genes 1 26.0 (18.3–35.4) NA, NA
Study year 1992–2009 24 43.6 (36.1–51.4) 97%, P < 0.01 P = 0.71
2010–2019 37 41.9 (37.2–46.8) 97%, P < 0.01
  1. NA Not applicable, PCR Polymerase chain reaction, TMA Transcription-mediated amplification;
  2. † Statistically significant