Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Lung cancer awareness and palliative care interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries: a scoping review

Author & year Country Study aim Study design Population (n) Mean/Age range of participants Percentage of males Percentage of females Level of knowledge about lung cancer Level of lung cancer awareness of signs and symptoms Lung cancer awareness of risk factors Relevant findings
Al-Naggar, R. A. and 2013 [31] Malaysia To determine the lung cancer knowledge among male secondary school teachers A cross-sectional study 150 male secondary school teachers 35.6 ± 6.5 (SD) N/A N/A Low Good Majority were aware that the main risk factors for lung cancer was cigarette and second-hand smoking The main preventive measures were smoking cessation, avoiding second-hand smoking and unnecessary chest x-ray
Chawla, Rachit. et al and 2010 [32] Nepal To evaluate the awareness and assessment of risk factors for lung cancer A cross- sectional study 240 subjects 33.4 ± SD 11.4 years 57.5% 42.5% Varied significantly by socio-demographic factors N/A 100% of males and 88% of females were aware that smoking was the primary risk factor for lung cancer Knowledge of smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer varied by socio-demographic factors
Desalu, O. O. and 2016 [33] Nigeria To determine the awareness of signs and risk factors for lung cancer and the anticipated delay before seeking medical care A cross- sectional study 1125 adults 33 ± 10 years 51.4% 57.5% Low Low More than half of the participants recognized that smoking, second-hand smoking and air pollution were risk factors for lung cancer Awareness about lung cancer signs and risk factors were not satisfactory
Loh, Jia Fui and 2018 [36] Malaysia To assess the knowledge of lung cancer among Malaysians and their willingness to undergo lung cancer screening A cross- sectional study 385 responses 31.8 ± 12.8 years 44.7% 55.3% Low Low Tobacco related factors and air pollution were the most known risk factors for lung cancer There was a low awareness of the non-specific warning signs of lung cancer and majority of the participants were willing to undergo lung cancer screening
Naskar, Subrata and 2017 [34] West Bengal To determine the level of lung cancer knowledge & awareness among secondary school teachers in West Bengal A cross- sectional study 50 secondary school teachers 30–39 years 56.0% 44.0% Moderate Very low Majority of the study participants mentioned that smoking was the most common cause of lung cancer Gender factor had an impact on knowledge & level of awareness regarding lung cancer
Shankar, Abhishek and 2016 [35] India To measure the level of lung cancer awareness among women and the impact of awareness programs in adopting safer practices Pre-test and Post-test design 182 teachers 42.4 years (range: 28–59 years) N/A N/A Low Low The teachers
indicated that smoking, second-hand smoke, family history and exposure to asbestos
were some of the most correct risk factors for lung cancer
There was a substantial increase in the level of lung cancer knowledge and the adoption of safe practices after awareness of lung cancer resulted to a significant change in smoking and alcohol habits
Zainuddin, Norafiza and 2018 [37] Malaysia To evaluate the knowledge of lung cancer and perception on its screening among IIUM Kuantan students A cross- sectional study 186 students 21 to 29 years N/A N/A Good Good Most of IIUM Kuantan students answered correctly for common lung cancer risk factors such as smoking, air pollution, occupational exposure and passive smoking Good knowledge of lung cancer resulted in positive perception of lung cancer screening
Li, Huiqin and 2016 [21] China N/A Literature review N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A palliative care was the recommended standard of care for patients with advanced NSCLC
Bülbül, Y and 2017 [20] Turkey To investigate the lung cancer symptoms and evaluate the approaches to alleviate these symptoms. Prospective study 1245 lung cancer patients 61.8 ± 9.4 years 88.7% 11.3% N/A N/A N/A Symptoms are more severe in patients at the advanced stage of lung cancer, and palliative care was insufficient for most patients