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Table 3 Sample Characteristics of child age 0-35 months according to background characteristics in Bihar

From: Deciphering disparities in childhood stunting in an underdeveloped state of India: an investigation applying the unconditional quantile regression method

  NFHS 1 N NFHS 2 N NFHS 3 N NFHS 4 N
Child HAZ [mean (SD)] −2.36 (0.05) 1821 −2.29 (0.05) 1627 −1.89 (0.05) 1188 −1.63 (0.04) 2184
Age of Child in Month [mean (SD)] 16.3(9.6) 1821 16.4(10.6) 1627 17.5(10.1) 1188 17.7(10.1) 2184
Age2 [mean (SD)] 357.2(342.7) 1821 378.5(376.0) 1627 405.5(367) 1188 414.7(373.7) 2184
Child Sex
Male 49.5 902 52.1 847 53.5 635 51.8 1131
 Female 50.5 919 47.9 779 46.6 553 48.2 1053
Birth Size
 Normal 71.9 1309 69.5 1130 47.2 561 69.34 1514
 Average and above 11.0 200 14.5 236 31.5 374 17.42 380
Small 17.1 312 16.1 261 21.3 253 13.24 289
Early Breastfeeding
No 98.2 1766 95.6 1406 97.4 1146 63.4 1151
Yes 1.8 30 4.4 65 2.6 31 36.6 665
No. of Siblings [mean (SD)] 1.88(1.7) 1821 1.96(1.8) 1627 2.06(1.9) 1188 1.62(1.4) 2184
Benefitted ICDS services
 No    92.1 1094 39.0 853
Yes    7.9 94 61.0 1331
Mother’s Characteristics
 Institutional Delivery         
 No 87.6 1594 84.9 1382 77.98 924 30.8 673
 Yes 12.4 227 15.1 245 22.02 262 69.2 1511
Age of mother at first birth [mean (SD)] 18.55(2.9) 1821 18.28(2.8) 1627 18.51(3.0) 1188 20.42(3.1) 2184
BMI of mother [mean (SD)]   19.34(2.5) 1627 19.30(2.6) 1188 20.06(3.2) 2184
Mother’s anaemia
No   71.1 1156 73.1 849 65.84 1438
Yes   28.9 470 26.9 313 34.16 746
Mother’s height in cm [mean (SD)]   149.6(5.4) 1627 150.0(5.4) 1188 149.5(5.8) 2184
Mother’s Education (mean) 2.02(4.0) 1821 2.01(3.8) 1627 2.93(4.5) 1188 3.98(4.9) 2184
Working mother
No 78.1 1422 80.6 1306 79.9 950 89.2 1964
Yes 21.9 399 19.7 321 20.1 238 10.2 220
 Media exposure (range) 0.47 (0-3) 1821 0.43 (0-3) 1627 0.60 (0-3) 1627 1.31(0-3) 2184
Religion
 Hindu 78.2 1424 82.4 1340 81.6 969 79.2 1731
 Muslim/Others 21.8 397 17.6 287 18.4 219 20.8 453
Caste
 SC 9.3 169 23.7 386 19.6 233 19.9 433
 ST 8.5 156 1.3 21 0.9 10 3.7 81
 Others 82.2 1496 75.0 1220 79.6 945 76.4 1670
Wealth index
 Poorest 20.5 373 18.2 369 31.7 376 55.5 1217
 Poorer 25.9 471 20.4 414 33.3 396 24.8 539
 Middle 16.9 308 23.3 472 16.6 197 11.6 251
 Richer 13.8 252 23.2 471 12.5 149 6.3 137
 Richest 22.9 417 14.9 303 5.8 69 1.8 39
Place of residence
 Urban 13.1 238 6.2 101 11.1 132 10.8 236
 Rural 86.9 1583 93.8 1526 88.9 1056 89.2 1948
 Total 100.0 1821 100.0 1627 100.0 1188 100.0 2184
  1. Source: Computed by the authors from unit-level data of NFHS rounds; SD: standard deviation