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Table 3 Monte Carlo maximum likelihood estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the GLGM fitted to 2014 DHS under-five mortality data

From: Geostatistical analysis and mapping: social and environmental determinants of under-five child mortality, evidence from the 2014 Ghana demographic and health survey

Variable Estimate Standard Error 95% Confidence Interval
Intercept −0.577616 0.504443 (−1.566305, 0.411073)
Child’s age −1.479790 0.100185 (−1.676150, − 1.283430)***
Mother’s age 0.032018 0.009849 (0.012715, 0.051321)***
U5 child in HH −1.150036 0.097724 (−1.341570, −0.958501)***
Twin: Ref. = Singletons
 Multiple 2.110605 0.229754 (1.660295, 2.560914)***
Mother’s education: Ref. = No education
 Primary −0.356383 0.204629 (−0.757447, 0.044682)
 Secondary −0.468651 0.191779 (−0.844530, − 0.092772)*
 Tertiary −0.595888 0.401036 (−1.381904, 0.190127)
Wealth quintile: Ref. = Poorest
 Poorer −0.212452 0.205782 (−0.615778, 0.190874)
 Middle −0.358440 0.226691 (−0.802747, 0.085867)
 Richer −0.462223 0.248172 (−0.948631, 0.024184)
 Richest −0.409530 0.301970 (−1.001381, 0.182321)
Elevation 0.000089 0.000052 (−0.000014, 0.000192)
EVI 0.000009 0.000090 (−0.000168, 0.000185)
Water proximity −0.000001 0.000001 (−0.000004, 0.000001)
σ2 0.066997 5.966316 −11.626766, 11.760761
φ 23.162896 0.007617 23.147966, 23.177825
  1. ***Significant at 0.1% level or less; *significant at 5% level or less;
  2. The scale parameter φ has units in kilometres