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Table 5 Exposure to Intervention

From: Cluster-randomised trial to test the effect of a behaviour change intervention on toilet use in rural India: results and methodological considerations

Item Control Intervention PD, % 95% CI APD% 95% CI
N % N %
Recently heard about toilets in any of these contexts (in last 6 months)
 Conversation with others 1214 6.7 1278 9.9 3.1 0.6/5.6 2.8 0.3/5.4
 Visits to neighbours 1214 3.1 1278 4.5 1.3 −0.2/2.8 1.2 −0.3/2.8
 WhatsApp message 1214 2.1 1278 3.1 1.0 −0.7/2.7 0.4 −1.1/2.0
 Village meeting 1214 14.3 1278 23.5 9.1 5.1/13.1 8.4 4.3/12.4
 Event in community 1214 13.1 1278 30.0 16.7 11.4/22 16.3 11/21.6
 Posters /stickers 1214 6.9 1278 13.2 6.5 3.6/9.5 6.2 3.2/9.2
 Radio 1214 0.4 1278 0.6 0.1 −0.4/0.7 0.0 −0.1/0.1
 TV 1214 21.9 1278 22.9 1.3 −3.3/5.8 0.0 −0.5/4.4
What did you hear
 One should construct a toilet if a household doesn’t have one 1214 14.4 1278 19.9 5.6 2.0/9.2 5.2 1.6/8.9
 One should improve one’s toilet if it is poor quality 1214 6.7 1278 12.1 5.4 3.1/7.7 5.2 2.8/7.5
 One should use toilet for defecation instead of going out in the open 1214 18.5 1278 25.0 6.3 2.5/10.1 5.8 2.1/9.5
After hearing this did you make changes to your toilet or done anything as a consequence?
 talked with someone 1214 15.0 1278 18.3 3.4 −0.1/7.5 3.1 −1.1/7.3
 made changes to my toilet 1214 8.0 1278 12.8 4.6 1.3/7.8 4.0 0.8/7.2
 saved money for a toilet 1214 3.5 1278 3.6 −0.1 −1.8/1.8 0.2 −1.6/2.0
Heard of any community event that talks about toilet in the past 6 months 1214 18.5 1278 39.1 20.7 15.4/26.0 19.7 14.3/25.1
Attended such an event 1214 8.3 1278 22.3 13.9 10.6/17.1 13.3 9.9/16.7
Promote toilet improvement 1214 6.5 1278 18.3 11.7 8.8/14.6 11.2 8.1/14.2
Commit to improve toilet 1214 22.8 1278 12.3 −12.3 −21.2/−3.5 −12.5 −21.4/−3.5
Heard the phrase ‘5 star toilet’ 1214 2.6 1278 13.9 11.3 8.9/13.8 10.9 8.5/13.4
Where did you hear it
 TV 1214 0.7 1278 1.6 0.1 0.0/1.9 0.1 0.0/1.9
 Village meeting 1214 1.2 1278 5.2 3.9 2.6/5.2 0.4 2.4/5.1
 Community event 1214 1.8 1278 10.9 9.1 6.7/11.5 8.8 6.4/11.2
 WhatsApp message 1214 0.3 1278 0.5 0.1 −0.4/0.6 0.1 −0.4/0.1
 Posters/stickers 1214 0.7 1278 4.1 3.4 1.9/5.0 3.2 1.8/4.7
 Virtual Reality film 1214 0.4 1278 0.9 0.5 −0.2/1.3 0.5 −0.3/1.3
 Friend/relative 1214 0.3 1278 0.7 0.4 −0.3/1.1 0.3 −0.4/1.1
Certificate for a 5-star toilet 1214 0.4 1278 4.5 4.0 0.3/5.1 3.8 2.7/4.8
Picture of your family on the village ‘Toilet Board’ poster 1214 0.2 1278 4.8 4.5 3.3/5.7 4.3 3.2/5.5
Skit about toilet convenience 1214 4.9 1278 18.2 13.1 10.0/16.3 12.6 9.4/15.8
Seen small-sized 5-star toilet model 1214 1.9 1278 12.5 10.7 8.2/13.1 10.3 7.8/12.8
Certificate about your toilet, or know anyone who has 1214 1.5 1278 7.4 5.9 4.2/7.6 5.7 3.9/7.5
Seen a certificate give-away 1214 2.0 1278 11.2 9.2 0.7/11.4 9.0 6.7/11.3
Someone talking about or showing a movie about pit filling 1214 2.4 1278 10.1 7.6 5.5/9.7 7.4 5.2/9.7
Movie about using a chair in the toilet for disabled or elderly people 1214 2.9 1278 11.0 8.0 6.0/10.1 7.8 5.6/10.1
Use any of the following
 Facebook 1214 18.2 1278 23.6 5.2 1.3/9.1 2.1 −1.6/5.7
 WhatsApp 1214 24.0 1278 31.2 7.1 3.0/11.2 3.0 −0.6/6.7
 Instagram 1214 6.0 1278 8.7 2.6 0.0/5.2 0.8 −1.5/3.1
 YouTube 1214 19.2 1278 22.1 2.7 −1.4/6.8 −0.8 −4.5/2.9
Ever got or sent a message on WhatsApp about toilets 1214 2.3 1278 2.8 0.6 −0.7/1.9 −0.1 −1.3/1.2
Heard about Swachh Sunder Shauchalay campaign 1214 40.6 1278 45.8 5.3 0.6/10.1 3.7 −0.8/8.2
Swachh Sunder Shauchalay campaign is about
 Paint your toilet walls 1214 7.9 1278 8.8 0.9 −1.5/3.3 0.7 −1.8/3.1
 Decorate your toilets 1214 28.1 1278 32.6 4.5 0.2/8.7 3.4 −0.8/7.6
  1. PD prevalence difference, calculated using linear regression (function: Gaussian, link: identity). Clustering at village level was adjusted for by using generalised estimating equations and robust standard errors. APD adjusted prevalence difference. Pd was adjusted for asset index (continuous variable) and maximum male education level (dichotomised into primary or less vs secondary or higher)
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