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Table 1 Campaign components

From: Cluster-randomised trial to test the effect of a behaviour change intervention on toilet use in rural India: results and methodological considerations




Pre intervention delivery

Meetings to seek support

Meetings were held with village leaders to discuss the campaign and get support to plan and organize day 1 event.

Facilitation script.

Recruitment of volunteers

1 volunteer identified from each village with help of local NGO partner/ Sarpanch who would promote 5 Star Toilet concept, help the team of facilitators to deliver the day 1 and day 2 intervention and follow up with community members for 5 Star Toilet makeovers.

Training of volunteers.

3 Days before day 1 event

Call/s were made to each village volunteer to ensure the WhatsApp broadcast groups are formed to share information on the campaign with the community members, mobile teasers have been passed around, leaders met with and locations identified for event/s.

WhatsApp teasers, phone calls



A customized campaign vehicle to go around the village to make announcements and also carry all the material for the events.

Vehicle design, announcement script, song recording, media player

Interaction with volunteer

Facilitators, with the help pf volunteer, identify location for the evening event and create a route plan for the household visits and street events.


Interaction with children

Expose children to a virtual reality (VR) experience of a 5 star toilet design and the idea of 5 star toilets and teach them slogans around 5 star toilets.

VR App on 5 star toilet design, VR googles, phone

Household Visits

Two teams of facilitators + Artists + Van + Children go from street to street, making household visits. Expose the idea of 5 star toilets, enquire if they would like to know the rating for their toilets, rate their toilet and express appreciation for what they already have. If they have 5 star: Award them with a 5 star sticker and paste it on their toilet and invite them to the evening event to receive certification. Take photographs. If they don’t have 5 star: Explain what they need to do to get 5 star.

5 star toilet leaflet

5 star toilet poster

Van in the community

Park the van in the street and make announcements, play songs, display 3D photographs of different toilet innovations from around the world, display small toilet model, and VR experience of a 5 star toilet.

Music player, photographs, mobile, VR goggles, VR App

Preparations for the evening event

Set up the venue for the evening event: AV + seating arrangement for community members, download photographs of the day’s activities from phone/camera and write certificates for 5 star toilet awardees.

Certificates, AV system, rug for seating arrangement

Enrolment Corner

In parallel create an enrolment corner for households willing to improve their existing toilets into a 5 star toilet with a standee on 5 star toilets, a table to showcase 5 star toilet model and a toilet chair on display for differently abled people.

Leaflets and documentation sheet, toilet chair, smart network Wi-Fi

Evening Event

1. Play the campaign song and interact with the children and make announcements

2. Play Films – Saving Time and Saving Effort

3. Skit performance

4. World of Toilets (slide show)

5. Toilet makeover films and toilet chair films

6. Celebrate those with 5 star toilets/ 5 star+ by awarding certificates

7. Introduce those who have enrolled – call them to the front and celebrate them

8. Farewell – “All the best! We will come back in 2–3 weeks to celebrate again”.

AV equipment, films, artists, certificates

Follow up

Volunteers promote 5 star toilet makeovers between day 1 and day 2 events. Take photographs of families who have modified their existing toilets.

Home visits, follow up on phone

Share films and song

Share films and campaign song in the village WhatsApp groups.

WhatsApp, YouTube link



All the pre-post toilet makeover photographs from the village are compiled into a presentation – clearly marking the names of people.



Make announcements about the evening event.

Van, audio system, announcement script.

Testimonial Videos

Record videos of families that undertook 5 star toilet makeover.

Phone camera

Evening community event

Make preparations, identify site.


Guessing Contest Pit Filling

Participants asked to guess how fast a pit fills up. This is done through a life size pit standee. The facilitator explains the time it takes for a pit to fill and explains the process of composting.

Live sized pit standee

Guessing Contest Compost

Jars with normal soil and compost are kept on a table. Participants are invited to guess which jar contains compost.

Glass jars with soil and compost.

Films of pit filling and testimonial videos

Films of pit filling are showcased and videos of people who undertook toilet makeovers are played.

Testimonial films, short films

Toilet Board

Photographs of people who did toilet makeover are displayed on a board and the board in placed in village centre or Panchayat Gahr.

Board, pictures, printer

Toilet Makeover

Presentation of certificates to those who improved toilets. Invite participants to come and share their experience with those in attendance.

Pre/post presentation.


People are thanked for their participation.