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Table 1 Descriptive and univariate analysis results (unadjusted odds ratios) for travel time to health facilities and confounding determinants associated with full immunisation status and DPT3 vaccine for children aged 12–23 months during the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey

From: Spatial access inequities and childhood immunisation uptake in Kenya

Determinants Fully immunised n(%) Not fully immunised n(%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Received DPT3 n(%) Didn’t receive DPT3 n(%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Mean travel time (minutes)
  < 30 2018 (79.3) 521 (20.7) 1   2335 (91.5) 199 (8.5) 1  
 30- < 60 581 (70.2) 242 (29.8) 0.76 (0.56–1.02) 0.071 737 (88.9) 88 (11.1) 0.93 (0.63–1.38) 0.728
 60- < 90 161 (58.6) 102 (41.5) 0.47 (0.32–0.68) < 0.0001 228 (85.7) 38 (14.4) 0.67 (0.39–1.17) 0.16
 90- < 120 85 (60.8) 81 (39.2) 0.44 (0.20–0.96) 0.039 121 (79.9) 44 (20.1) 0.26 (0.12–0.56) 0.001
 120+ 127 (53.8) 11 (46.2) 0.34 (0.21–0.54) < 0.0001 175 (73.3) 64 (26.7) 0.22 (0.12–0.42) < 0.0001
Maternal education
 No education 488 (56.5) 321 (43.5) 1   677 (77.7) 188 (22.3) 1  
 less than secondary 1880 (75.6) 416 (24.4) 2.30 (1.59–3.32) < 0.0001 2270 (91.1) 217 (8.9) 3.97 (2.16–7.30) < 0.0001
 secondary or higher 618 (86.2) 42 (13.8) 4.65 (3.17–6.80) < 0.0001 668 (93.3) 32 (6.7) 5.73 (3.32–9.89) < 0.0001
Household wealth index
 Poor 885 (63.0) 497 (37.0) 1   1189 (83.7) 247 (16.4) 1  
 Least poor 655 (76.1) 153 (23.9) 1.61 (1.07–2.43) 0.022 778 (90.4) 75 (9.6) 2.05 (1.18–3.58) 0.015
 Middle 523 (79.1) 87 (20.9) 2.1 (1.63–2.69) < 0.0001 605 (92.0) 42 (8.0) 1.69 (1.11–2.60) 0.011
 Rich 429 (83.0) 37 (17.0) 3.01 (1.91–4.74) < 0.0001 558 (93.9) 40 (6.1) 4.17 (1.18–3.58) < 0.0001
 Richest 431 (82.6) 5 (17.4) 3.3 (2.28–4.79) < 0.0001 485 (92.8) 33 (7.2) 4.48 (2.48–8.10) < 0.0001
Parity
 Low 1726 (81.9) 429 (18.1) 1   1999 (93.2) 156 (6.8) 1  
 Higha 1260 (67.3) 637 (32.7) 0.50 (0.38–0.64) < 0.0001 1616 (85.7) 281 (14.3) 0.41 (0.29–0.59) < 0.0001
Type of residence
 Urban 974 (78.8) 287 (21.2) 1   1150 (91.3) 11 (8.6) 1  
 Rural 2012 (74.3) 779 (25.7) 0.80 (0.63–1.03) 0.08 2465 (89.4) 326 (10.6) 0.73 (0.51–1.05) 0.089
Mother’s age (years)
  ≤ 20 359 (77.3) 84 (22.7) 1   436 (93.5) 44 (6.6) 1  
 21–30 1770 (76.7) 439 (23.3) 0.93 (0.63–1.38) 0.728 2145 (90.5) 245 (9.5) 0.57 (0.31–1.07) 0.081
  ≥ 31 857 (73.5) 256 (26.5) 0.77 (0.50–1.17) 0.22 1034 (87.8) 148 (12.2) 0.37 (0.19–0.74) 0.005
Mother’s marital status
 Married/living with a partner 2533 (75.5) 679 (24.5) 1   3074 (90.0) 374 (10.0) 1  
 Widowed/divorced/separated 225 (76.5) 57 (23.5) 0.94 (0.55–1.61) 0.832 269 (87.5) 46 (12.5) 0.66 (0.28–1.55) 0.336
 Never in union 228 (79.5) 43 (20.5) 1.04 (0.69–1.57) 0.854 272 (93.8) 17 (6.2) 1.57 (0.78–3.14) 0.204
  1. a High parity (if mother’s age < 30 years and has more than two children living in the household or is aged ≥30 years and has more than three children living in the household and low parity otherwise