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Table 2 Conceptual framework for sustainability evaluation and operationalization of key variables

From: Can complex programs be sustained? A mixed methods sustainability evaluation of a national infant and young child feeding program in Bangladesh and Vietnam

Domain Constructs Operationalization Data source
Determinants of sustainability Program/project-specific factors Clear goals
Perceived effectiveness
Financing
Training
Evaluation/assessment
Leadership
Interviews and focus groups
Bangladesh: 24 interviews, 43 focus group participants (7 groups)
Vietnam: 121 interviews, 30 focus group participants (6 groups)
Organizational factors Local-level modifiability
Donor/Initiative- client/−community interactions
Project champion
Integration with institutions
Institutional strength/capacities
Contextual factors Concurrent projects/activities
Community characteristics
Political, economic and cultural characteristics
Outcomes of sustainability Continuation of program activities Dose and reach of program
Adherence to program standards/guidelines
Interviews and focus groups
Bangladesh: 24 interviews, 43 focus group participants (7 groups)
Vietnam: 121 interviews, 30 focus group participants (6 groups)
Service observation
Bangladesh: 242 observations
Vietnam: 58 observations
Capacity Knowledge
Self-efficacy, job satisfaction
Health worker surveys
Bangladesh: 600 surveys
Vietnam: 68 surveys