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Table 1 Frequencies of socio-demographic factors, cohort effect, health-related factors, CWP, CMDs, SA, DP, unemployment, and mortality among 7884 twins and 162 (324 individuals) twin pairs discordant for exposure

From: Adverse outcomes of chronic widespread pain and common mental disorders in individuals with sickness absence – a prospective study of Swedish twins

  Whole sample Discordant co-twins
Among those with CWP and/or CMDs Among those without CWP and CMDs
n (%) n (%) n (%)
N 7884 (100) 162 (100) 162 (100)
Cohort
 SALT 5072 (64.3) 102 (63.0) 102 (63.0)
 STAGE 2812 (35.7) 60 (37.0) 60 (37.0)
Sick-leave days
 < 90 days 6338 (80.4) 128 (79.0) 123 (75.9)
 90–180 days 957 (12.1) 19 (11.7) 22 (13.6)
 > 180 days 589 (7.5) 15 (9.3) 17 (10.5)
Sex
 Men 2790 (35.4) 32 (19.8) 46 (28.4)
 Women 5094 (64.6) 130 (80.3) 116 (71.6)
Age (Mean, SD) 46.8 (10.5) 46.2 (9.7) 46.2 (9.7)
Zygosity
 Monozygotic 2298 (29.2) 71 (43.8) 71 (43.8)
 Dizygotic same sex 2715 (34.4) 51 (31.5) 51 (31.5)
 Dizygotic opposite sex 2727 (34.6) 2 (1.2) 2 (1.2)
 Unknown zygosity 144 (1.8) 38 (23.5) 38 (23.5)
Education
 Elementary 1647 (20.9) 32 (19.8) 24 (14.8)
 Secondary 4140 (52.5) 90 (55.6) 98 (60.5)
 Higher education 2093 (26.6) 40 (24.7) 40 (24.7)
 Missing 4 (0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Children < 18 living at home 3048 (38.7) 70 (43.2) 71 (43.8)
Type of living area
 Urban 4110 (52.1) 72 (44.4) 72 (44.4)
 Semi-urban/Rural 3771 (47.8) 90 (55.6) 90 (55.6)
 Missing 3 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Self-rated health
 Excellent 1740 (22.1) 26 (16.1) 34 (21.0)
 Good 1888 (24.0) 36 (22.2) 32 (19.8)
 Moderate 654 (8.3) 20 (12.4) 18 (11.1)
 Fairly poor/poor 1343 (17.0) 26 (16.1) 25 (15.4)
 Missing 2259 (28.7) 54 (33.3) 53 (32.7)
Pain
 Back 2220 (28.2) 52 (32.1) 46 (28.4)
 Neck 729 (9.3) 29 (17.9) 20 (12.4)
 Shoulder 1416 (18.0) 46 (28.4) 30 (18.5)
Headache 1999 (25.4) 56 (34.6) 46 (28.4)
Migraine 856 (10.9) 27 (16.7) 24 (14.8)
Cancer 260 (3.3) 4 (2.5) 7 (3.2)
CWP and/or CMDs
 No CWP and CMDs 6447 (81.8) 0 (0) 162 (100)
 Having CWP but no CMDs 374 (4.7) 40 (24.7) 0 (0)
 No CWP but having CMDs 947 (12.0) 107 (66.1) 0 (0)
 Having both CWP and CMDs 116 (1.5) 15 (9.3) 0 (0)
Outcomes
 Disability pension 1242 (15.8) 35 (21.6) 25 (15.4)
 Unemployment (>  90 days) 1447 (18.4) 34 (21.0) 33 (20.4)
 All-cause mortality 417 (5.3) 11 (6.8) 2 (1.2)
  1. * CWP Chronic Widespread pain, CMDs Common mental disorders