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Table 1 Bivariate comparison of demographic characteristics of veterans in community care treatment and mental health clinics onlya

From: Social determinants of mental health care systems: intensive community based Care in the Veterans Health Administration

  Mental Health Clinic (1) Vocational (2) Homelessness (3) Criminal Justice (4) SMI Services (5) 2 vs 1 3 vs 1 4 vs 1 5 vs 1
N= 1,134,377 20,921 160,273 42,985 27,931 Effect Size
Demographics Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Cohen d
 Age (years) 55.22 15.45 48.69 12.30 52.15 12.01 52.18 15.64 54.02 11.96 −0.43 − 0.20 − 0.20 −0.08
 Income ($) 25,339.03 42,872.53 15,658.00 22,245.30 12,602.47 22,973.72 19,912.26 42,170.73 20,693.33 23,364.20 −0.24 −0.31 −0.13 − 0.11
  % N % N % N % N % N Risk Ratio
 Male 90.3 1,024,217 89.7 18,766 90.5 145,034 94.5 40,611 88.5 24,714 0.993 1.002 1.046 0.980
Race
 White 77.5 879,022 62.0 12,968 52.8 84,636 68.1 29,281 65.0 18,149 0.800 0.681 0.879 0.839
 Black 16.2 183,291 31.2 6522 39.1 62,738 25.0 10,766 28.5 7957 1.929 2.423 1.550 1.763
 Hispanic 17.0 192,678 14.7 3079 12.6 20,138 11.8 5059 10.0 2789 0.867 0.740 0.693 0.588
 Mixed 2.1 23,692 2.5 516 2.7 4356 2.1 910 3.2 898 1.180 1.301 1.014 1.540
 Other 1.6 18,251 1.2 247 1.1 1716 1.4 606 1.7 473 0.733 0.665 0.876 1.054
Residence type
 Urban area residence 68.8 780,219 78.9 16,499 85.0 136,183 76.5 32,877 81.4 22,737 1.147 1.235 1.112 1.184
 Large rural area residence 11.5 130,283 9.5% 1979 6.7% 10,688 9.4% 4057 8.3% 2330 0.824 0.581 0.822 0.726
 Small rural area residence 8.9 100,520 5.1% 1075 4.0% 6372 6.7% 2886 4.6% 1297 0.580 0.449 0.758 0.524
 Isolated rural area residence 6.7 75,455 3.6% 756 2.6% 4144 5.2% 2233 2.7% 750 0.543 0.389 0.781 0.404
OEF/OIF era 17.6 200,092 19.5 4085 9.9 15,798 17.9 7715 8.8 2453 1.107 0.559 1.018 0.498
 Service connected 50% or more 39.1 444,072 20.2 4227 15.0 24,062 20.5 8830 43.2 12,074 0.516 0.384 0.525 1.104
 Service connected < 50% 18.9 214,572 19.7 4117 17.0 27,195 16.1 6907 11.7 3264 1.040 0.897 0.849 0.618
 Homeless during the year 1.4 15,932 10.7 2235 86.2 138,219 30.6 13,169 28.3 7894 7.606 61.404 21.813 20.123
  1. aNon-substantial differences involving less than 5% of the sample are not shown. Data available on request