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Table 1 Distribution of salaried women from early, middle, and late working life cohorts (WLCs) (N = 7404) across sickness absence trajectories (> 15 accumulated days on sickness absence per quarter) by employment conditions, occupational category, diagnosis groups, and the prior 10-year labour market participation patterns. Catalonia, 2012–2014

From: Sickness absence trajectories following labour market participation patterns: a cohort study in Catalonia (Spain), 2012–2014

  Early WLC (N = 2670) Middle WLC (N = 2739) Late WLC (N = 1995)
WOMEN Low stable (87.4%) High stable (6.7%) Increasing (5.9%) pa Low stable (85.3%) Decreasing (9.4%) Increasing (5.3%) pa Low stable (85.4%) Decreasing (5.0%) Increasing (9.6%) pa
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Type of contract
 Permanent contract 1852 (79.4) 128 (71.5) 125 (79.1) .045 1935 (82.8) 207 (80.5) 108 (74.0) .020 1484 (87.0) 85 (85.9) 168 (88.0) .876
 Temporary contract 481 (20.6) 51 (28.5) 33 (20.9) 401 (17.2) 50 (19.5) 38 (26.0) 221 (13.0) 14 (14.1) 23 (12.0)
Working time
 Full-time 1526 (65.4) 114 (63.7) 101 (63.9) .984 1528 (65.4) 160 (62.2) 98 (67.1) .787 1274 (74.7) 72 (72.8) 145 (76.0) .771
 Part-time: > 50% up to 99% 602 (25.8) 49 (27.4) 43 (27.2) 568 (24.3) 66 (25.7) 32 (21.9) 251 (14.7) 14 (14.1) 23 (12.0)
   ≤ 50% 205 (8.8) 16 (8.9) 14 (8.9) 240 (10.3) 31 (12.1) 16 (11.0) 180 (10.6) 13 (13.1) 23 (12.0)
Occupational category
 Skilled non-manual 562 (24.5) 42 (23.8) 31 (20.0) .305 521 (22.7) 58 (23.3) 42 (28.7) .556 291 (17.5) 15 (15.5) 28 (15.1) .759
 Skilled manual 327 (14.2) 34 (19.2) 25 (16.1) 351 (15.3) 36 (14.5) 23 (15.8) 285 (17.2) 18 (18.6) 31 (16.8)
 Unskilled non-manual 1248 (54.2) 85 (48.0) 90 (58.1) 1172 (51.1) 127 (51.0) 62 (42.5) 765 (46.0) 41 (42.2) 94 (50.8)
 Unskilled manual 164 (7.1) 16 (9.0) 9 (5.8) 250 (10.9) 28 (11.2) 19 (13.0) 321 (19.3) 23 (23.7) 32 (17.3)
Income in quartiles
 High 794 (34.1) 50 (27.9) 54 (34.1) .229 733 (31.3) 69 (27.0) 40 (27.4) .152 475 (27.9) 26 (26.2) 43 (22.5) .625
 Middle-high 721 (30.9) 51 (28.6) 50 (31.7) 705 (30.2) 78 (30.4) 55 (37.7) 555 (32.6) 28 (28.3) 67 (35.1)
 Middle-low 532 (22.8) 57 (31.8) 36 (22.8) 569 (24.4) 69 (27.0) 39 (26.7) 423 (24.8) 28 (28.3) 54 (28.3)
 Low 284 (12.2) 21 (11.7) 18 (11.4) 328 (14.1) 40 (15.6) 12 (8.2) 251 (14.7) 17 (17.2) 27 (14.1)
Diagnosis group (ICD-10)
 Mental 252 (11.8) 32 (18.8) 36 (24.5) <.001 294 (14.9) 52 (22.3) 35 (28.0) .001 235 (16.8) 15 (20.0) 36 (21.1) .008
 Digestive 83 (3.9) 5 (2.9) 3 (2.0) 131 (6.6) 12 (5.2) 3 (2.4) 99 (7.0) 3 (4.0) 10 (5.8)
 Musculoskeletal 925 (43.3) 44 (25.7) 47 (32.0) 638 (32.4) 68 (29.2) 40 (32.0) 459 (32.6) 28 (37.3) 65 (38.0)
 Pregnancy 327 (15.3) 39 (22.8) 30 (20.4) 195 (9.9) 28 (12.0) 13 (10.4)
 Injuries and poisoning 173 (8.1) 14 (8.2) 8 (5.4) 209 (10.6) 27 (11.6) 13 (10.4) 211 (15.0) 17 (22.7) 32 (18.7)
 Others 377 (17.6) 37 (21.6) 23 (15.7) 505 (25.6) 46 (19.7) 21 (16.8) 403 (28.6) 12 (16.0) 28 (16.4)
Labour market participation patterns
 Stable employment 1789 (76.7) 143 (79.9) 121 (76.6) .814 1706 (73.0) 186 (72.4) 114 (78.1) .701 1214 (71.2) 66 (66.7) 130 (68.1) .728
 Increasing employment 347 (14.9) 25 (14.0) 25 (15.8) 310 (13.3) 37 (14.4) 15 (10.3) 186 (10.9) 12 (12.1) 28 (14.7)
 Without long-term coverage (early and late)/Fluctuant employment (middle) 197 (8.4) 11 (6.2) 12 (7.6) 320 (13.7) 34 (13.2) 17 (11.6) 127 (7.5) 8 (8.1) 15 (7.9)
 N/A (early and middle)/Decreasing employment (late) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 178 (10.4) 13 (13.1) 18 (9.4)
Total 2333 (100) 179 (100) 158 (100)   2336 (100) 257 (100) 146 (100)   1705 (100) 99 (100) 191 (100)  
  1. Missing values in the occupational category (OC), income (I), and diagnosis group (DG): N (%) in the early cohort (low stable—OC: 32 (1.37); I: 2 (0.09); DG: 1 (0.04); increasing—OC: 3 (1.90); high stable—OC: 2 (1.12)); middle cohort (low stable—OC: 42 (1.80); I: 1 (0.04); DG: 5 (0.21); decreasing—OC: 8 (3.11); I: 1 (0.39)); and late cohort (low stable—OC: 43 (2.52); I: 1 (0.06); DG: 1 (0.06); decreasing—OC: 2 (2.02); increasing—OC: 6 (3.14)) by sickness absence trajectory in the period 2012–2014. Income in quartiles based on the average monthly income in the early cohort (high: 5063€; middle-high: 1940€; middle-low: 1337€; low: 886€), middle cohort (high: 5315€; middle-high: 2127€; middle-low: 1403€; low: 893€), and late cohort (high: 5577€; middle-high: 2151€; middle-low: 1386€; low: 856€). aChi-squared tests. bFisher’s exact tests.