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Table 1 Population-weighted summary statistics for suicide mortality and contextual characteristics across all commuting zones, 1999–2001 and 2015–2017 (standard deviation in parentheses)

From: Ecological factors associated with suicide mortality among non-Hispanic whites

  1999–2001 2015–2017
Mortality rate per 100 k (non-Hispanic white, ages 20–64) 13.9 (5.7) 19.9 (7.0)
 Male 23.4 (10.5) 31.8 (12.0)
 Female 4.5 (3.4) 8.1 (5.0)
Mortality rate per 100 k (non-Hispanic white, ages 65+) 14.1 (7.6) 18.5 (7.5)
 Male 23.7 (14.3) 29.3 (12.8)
 Female 4.6 (5.1) 7.8 (5.6)
Percent unemployed 4.8 (1.3) 4.1 (0.9)
Percent of employment in manufacturing sector 10.9 (5.1) 7.5 (4.1)
Percent of Non-Hispanic White population ages 25+ with a bachelor’s degree or highera 25.9 (7.9) 32.4 (9.0)
Percent of the population ages 15+ married 54.9 (3.4) 48.8 (3.4)
Total adherents to any religious denomination as percent of total population 50.0 (11.4) 48.3 (10.5)
Percent of households owning a firearm (state-level) 34.4 (11.8) 34.4 (11.7)
Licensed firearm sellers per 100,000 26.5 (19.4) 23.5 (18.5)
Score of restrictive gun laws (state-level) 0.9 (0.9) 0.9 (0.8)
Annual opioid prescriptions per 100,000 77.7 (27.7) 62.5 (21.4)
  1. Source: Vital Statistics and Census data. See Supplementary Table 1 for source data for contextual characteristics
  2. aRefers to both sexes combined