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Table 9 Trends in risk factors by sex and age in the survey

From: Improved ascertainment of modes of HIV transmission in Ukraine indicates importance of drug injecting and homosexual risk

  2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 p-value for trend
N N N % % %
Men   410 373 470     
het 401 360 442 97.8% 96.5% 94.0% 0.004
hrh 251 213 274 61.4% 57.4% 58.4% 0.476
sti 154 143 197 40.3% 39.7% 44.5% 0.183
idu 246 226 263 60.0% 60.9% 56.3% 0.264
hcv 250 232 273 61.4% 65.4% 59.3% 0.595
hbv 206 183 239 50.6% 51.5% 52.1% 0.579
msm 26 38 66 6.4% 10.5% 14.5% < 0.001
nos 29 58 67 7.4% 15.8% 14.7% 0.002
pen 262 231 296 70.1% 67.3% 68.7% 0.787
Women   357 312 363     
het 356 306 354 99.7% 98.1% 97.5% 0.016
hrh 174 145 144 48.7% 46.9% 39.8% 0.020
sti 122 106 146 37.5% 35.1% 42.8% 0.130
idu 110 78 92 31.1% 25.2% 25.8% 0.119
hcv 167 122 137 47.4% 41.8% 38.1% 0.023
hbv 147 110 129 41.8% 37.7% 35.8% 0.151
msm 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  
nos 51 66 77 14.7% 21.7% 21.9% 0.022
pen 198 153 198 60.0% 53.3% 58.1% 0.812
<=24   52 46 59     
het 52 45 53 100.0% 97.8% 89.8% 0.008
hrh 26 11 16 50.0% 23.9% 27.6% 0.029
sti 14 13 19 31.8% 30.2% 35.2% 0.562
idu 10 4 6 19.6% 8.9% 10.5% 0.184
hcv 20 11 10 38.5% 24.4% 16.9% 0.024
hbv 17 11 19 32.7% 24.4% 32.2% 0.757
msm 2 3 13 14.3% 27.3% 61.9% 0.004
nos 2 11 9 4.0% 25.0% 16.1% 0.119
pen 25 16 35 51.0% 38.1% 62.5% 0.141
25–44   585 528 599     
het 578 518 584 98.8% 98.1% 97.5% 0.089
hrh 338 293 327 57.9% 55.6% 54.7% 0.312
sti 209 193 244 38.5% 37.7% 43.3% 0.090
idu 296 251 277 50.7% 47.8% 46.6% 0.156
hcv 335 289 312 58.0% 58.0% 52.9% 0.097
hbv 273 227 269 47.2% 45.6% 45.7% 0.693
msm 20 29 44 6.3% 10.1% 12.6% 0.006
nos 55 88 92 9.8% 17.0% 15.8% 0.004
pen 364 310 356 67.8% 63.4% 64.7% 0.386
> = 45   130 111 175     
het 127 103 159 97.7% 92.8% 90.9% 0.019
hrh 61 54 75 46.9% 50.5% 42.9% 0.442
sti 53 43 80 44.2% 40.2% 48.2% 0.412
idu 50 49 72 38.8% 44.1% 41.9% 0.605
hcv 62 54 88 48.1% 51.9% 51.5% 0.412
hbv 63 55 80 48.8% 52.9% 46.8% 0.690
msm 4 6 9 5.4% 9.2% 10.3% 0.364
nos 23 25 43 18.3% 22.5% 25.3% 0.157
pen 71 58 103 60.2% 58.6% 62.0% 0.642
Total   767 685 833     
het 757 666 796 98.7% 97.2% 95.6% < 0.001
hrh 425 358 418 55.5% 52.6% 50.3% 0.057
sti 276 249 343 39.0% 37.6% 43.8% 0.042
idu 356 304 355 46.6% 44.6% 43.1% 0.172
hcv 417 354 410 54.9% 54.7% 50.0% 0.092
hbv 353 293 368 46.5% 45.3% 44.9% 0.692
msm 26 38 66 6.4% 10.5% 14.5% <0.001
nos 80 124 144 10.8% 18.5% 17.8% <0.001
pen 460 384 494 65.3% 61.0% 64.0% 0.819
  1. Risk factors (for definitions see Table 1): het heterosexual exposure, hrh high-risk heterosexual exposure, sti sexually transmitted infections, idu injecting drug use, hcv exposure to HCV, hbv exposure to HBV, msm homosexual exposure, nos nosocomial exposure, pen skin penetration exposure