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Table 1 Prevalence of underweight by study variables among urban women in Ethiopia, 2000–2016

From: Trends and determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity among urban Ethiopian women from 2000 to 2016

Variables 2000 2005 2011 2016 2000–2016 2000–2016
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) aDiff (95% CI)
Socioeconomic factors
 Women’s education
  No schooling 230 (26.4) 55 (21.4) 155 (20.3) 67 (12.9) 507 (21.0) −13.5 (−20.1, − 6.8)
  Primary school 121 (19.3) 55 (19.5) 344 (22.4) 134 (12.7) 653 (18.7) −6.6 (− 11.7, − 1.5)
  Secondary and higher 242 (22.8) 99 (17.3) 217 (17.1) 259 (16.8) 816 (18.4) −6.0 (−10.8, − 1.1)
 Women’s employment
  No employment 278 (25.0) 123 (19.3) 318 (21.2) 226 (17.6) 946 (20.8) −7.4 (−13.1, − 1.6)
  Formal employment 176 (19.0) 58 (16.4) 260 (18.1) 183 (12.7) 677 (16.3) −6.3 (−11.5, − 1.1)
  Informal employment 129 (26.2) 28 (23.5) 131 (21.5) 50 (13.2) 338 (21.1) −13.0 (−22.3, − 3.6)
 Marital status
  Not married 256 (23.6) 113 (21.8) 354 (23.2) 246 (19.3) 970 (22.0) −4.4 (−9.1, 0.5)
  Currently married 204 (20.5) 53 (13.1) 260 (16.5) 132 (9.4) 650 (14.8) −11.1 (−15.3, −6.8)
  Formerly married 132 (27.9) 43 (22.6) 101 (21.5) 81,919.3) 357 (23.0) −8.7 (−16.5, −0.6)
 Household wealth status
  Poor 427 (26.5) 138 (22.4) 48 (51.0) 14 (12.5) 628 (25.7) −11.3 (−22.4, −0.2)
  Middle 121 (18.8) 42 (16.4) 4 (10.7) 14 (34.8) 181 (18.5) 16.3 (−9.3, 42.0)
  Rich 4 (6.3) 11 (10.1) 716 (19.3) 431 (14.6) 1110 (16.9) −9.9 (−13.3, −6.5)
 Toilet facility
  Unimproved 196 (26.4) 115 (22.1) 477 (23.2) 226 (14.9) 1014 (21.0) −11.6 (−18.0, − 5.2)
  Improved 397 (21.8) 87 (15.4) 235 (15.8) 227 (14.8) 947 (17.5) −7.0 (−11.8, −2.3)
 Source of drinking water
  Unimproved 89 (24.5) 18 (21.1) 65 (21.3) 85 (15.8) 257 (19.9) −8.7 (−15.3, −2.1)
  Improved 504 (23.00 192 (18.6) 651 (19.9) 374 (14.6) 1719 (19.0) −8.4 (−12.5, −4.3)
Demographic factors
 Women’s age
  15–24 years 291 (23.2) 114 (20.1) 385 (22.2) 255 (19.4) 1045 (21.5) −3.8 (−8.3, 0.7)
  25–34 years 127 (18.5) 53 (18.6) 190 (17.3) 124 (11.7) 494 (15.8) −6.8 (− 11.9, − 1.7)
  35–49 years 174 (28.4) 41 (16.1) 141 (19.0) 80 (10.9) 437 (18.6) −17.5 (−24.1, − 10.9)
 Parity
  None 285 (23.0) 120 (20.6) 382 (22.1) 288 (18.9) 1074 (21.2) −4.1 (−8.5, 0.4)
  1–4 children 188 (21.4) 59 (15.3) 245 (16.8) 144 (11.0) 636 (15.8) −10.4 (−15.2, −5.6)
  5+ children 120 (27.1) 29 (21.1) 90 (23.3) 28 (9.9) 267 (21.4) −17.3 (−25.7, −8.8)
Behavioural factors
 Listening radio
  No 165 (26.2) 44 (20.9) 216 (25.5) 228 (16.8) 653 (21.5) −9.4 (−15.3, −3.5)
  Yes 427 (22.2) 165 (18.4) 499 (18.4) 231 (13.2) 1322 (18.1) −9.0 (−13.2, −4.8)
 Read magazine
  No 354 (22.9) 105 (19.9) 411 (20.9) 295 (14.2) 1165 (19.1) −8.7 (−12.9, −4.6)
  Yes 239 (23.5) 102 (17.7) 304 (19.2) 164 (15.9) 809 (19.2) −7.6 (−12.6, −2.7)
 Watch television
  No 305 (25.2) 71 (24.3) 168 (22.9) 105 (14.7) 650 (22.0) −10.5 (−17.0, −3.9)
  Yes 288 (21.4) 138 (16.9) 548,919.3) 354 (14.8) 1327 (17.9) −6.5 (−10.7, −2.5)
Community-level factors
 Region of residence
  Tigray 73 (33.1) 28 (31.8) 79 (28.4) 55 (21.9) 235 (28.0) −11.1 (−19.3, −3.1)
  Afar 5 (18.4) 2914.2) 11 (31.2) 8 (23.7) 26 (23.6) 5.3 (−1.5, 12.1)
  Amhara 139 (31.3) 32 (18.2) 219 (24.9) 95 (14.5) 485 (22.5) −16.8 (−26.8, −6.8)
  Oromia 163 (20.1) 65 (19.2) 169 (19.8) 130 (16.8) 527 (19.0) −3.3 (−10.4, 3.9)
  Somali 25 (52.2) 9 (22.7) 23 (20.1) 12 (18.1) 70 (25.7) −34 (−5.3, −15.6)
  Benishangul 6 (42.7) 2 (35.6) 8 (22.6) 3 (12.3) 19 (24.4) −30.3 (− 38.6, −22.0)
  SNNPRb 44 (17.4) 15 (16.2) 71 (14.9) 25 (7.0) 154 (13.1) −10.4 (−19.7, − 1.1)
  Gambella 4 (31.0) 1 (16.2) 5 (27.2) 5 (28.9) 15 (28.7) −2.1 (−22.1, 17.9)
  Metropolis 134 (18.4) 55 (15.6) 131 (14.9) 125 (13.6) 445 (15.5) −4.8 (−7.4, −2.1)
  1. n (%): weighted count and proportion for each variable
  2. aDiff indicates the point percentage change in prevalence of underweight between 2000 to 2016
  3. bSNNPR Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region